1. August Comte
    • proposed positivism
    • coined term sociology
    • founder of sociology
  2. Herbert Spencer
    • social darwinism
    • lower and higher forms of society
    • survival of the fittest

    society shouldnt be changed- it will evolutionize
  3. Karl Marx
    class conflict between capitalist class and working class- bourgeoise and proletariat

    society should be changed
  4. Emile Durkheim
    sociology recognized as a separate discipline

    • social integration- degree in which ppl are tied to their social group
    • compared suicide rates between groups
  5. Max Weber
    Religion and the origin of capitalism

    religion is central force in social change

    protestant ethic- self denying approach to life

    spirit of capitalism- readiness to invest capital in order to make more money
  6. goals of science
    • explain why something happens
    • make generalizations and make statements
    • predict what will happen in the future
  7. symbolic interactionism
    • MICRO
    • how people use symbols in everyday life
  8. functionalist perspective

    society is a whole unit made up of parts that work together

    functionalism or structural functionalism

    Robert Merton
  9. conflict theory
    • MACRO
    • society is composed of groups who are competing for scarce resources
    • Karl Marx -founder of conflict theory
  10. origins of sociology
    • tradition (superstition, myth, stars) vs.
    • science
    • sociology emerged mid 1800
    • industrial revolution- moving from farms to city
    • imperialism
  11. public sociology
    • sociology used for the public good
    • have politicians and policy makers use sociology to decide social policy
  12. pure sociology
    analyzing an aspect of society and publishing their findings
  13. applied sociology
    using sociology to solve problems
  14. Albion Small
    • founded the dept of sociology at the univ of chicago
    • launched the American Journal of Sociology
  15. George Herbert Mead
    developed symbolic interactionist perspective

    taught at the univ of chicago
  16. Talcot Parsons
    parts of society working together harmoniously

    no social reform
  17. C. Wright Mills
    theoretical abstractions in favor of social reform

    the elite had power which was threat to freedon
  18. W.E.B Dubois
    • First harvard phd for african american
    • neglected by sociologists
  19. Jane Adams
    • member of Am Sociological Socity
    • co founded Hull house
  20. culture
    language, beliefs, values, norms, behaviors, material objects passed on
  21. ethnocentrism
    tendancy to use our own culture to judge other cultures

    • positive: group loyalties
    • neg: discrimination
  22. cultural relativism
    try to understand a culture on its own terms

    ex: bull fighting
  23. gestures
    movements to convey messages without words
  24. language
    provides social past and future
  25. Edward Sapir and Benjamin Whorf
    • studied Hopi indians,
    • language both shapes and relfects our cultural experiences
  26. values
    ideas of what is desirable in life
  27. norms
    expectations, rules of behavior
  28. positive sanction
    approval for following a norm
  29. negative sanction
    disapproval for not following a norm
  30. folkways
    • norms not strictly enforced
    • washing hands
  31. mores
    essential to core values, more than a norm
  32. taboo
    a norm strongly engrained if its broken its a taboo
  33. pleuralistic society
    made up of many different groups
  34. cultural lag
    being behind technology
  35. cultural diffusion
    spread of material and nonmaterial traits from one culture to another
  36. cultural leveling
    other cultures wanting to be like western cultures
  37. charles horton cooley
    looking glass
  38. herbert mead
    • play
    • 3 steps, imitation, play, team games
  39. significant others
    parents sibling
  40. generalized other
    how people in general think of us
  41. Piaget and his stages
  42. sensorimotor
    • birth to age 2
    • direct contact with our senses
  43. preoperational stage
    • using symbols
    • knowing to count to 10 but not understanding what numbers mean
  44. concrete operational stage
    know causation and size and speed but limited to concrete thoughts
  45. formal operational stage
    abstract thinking
  46. kolhberg
    • amoral stage
    • preconventional stage- follow rules
    • conventional stage- morality
    • postconventional-judge others on right and wrong
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