Alabama High School Graduation Exams

  1. What European movement resulted in exposure to Middle Eastern and Asian goods (after a failed attempt to take away the Holy Lands from Muslims?
  2. What European movement resulted in new art, technology, and a return to classical thought?
  3. What European movement resulted in the rise of the protestant religion?
  4. What terms are used to describe the exchange of goods between Europe and the Americas after Columbus's discovery?
    Columbian Exchange
  5. What were the Spanish explorers called who searched for "God, gold, and glory"?
  6. What was the name of the first American settlement in 16565 by Europeans?
    St. Augustine
  7. What was the first successful English settlement in the New World (1607)?
  8. What was the legislature of the Virginia colony called (the first representative government in the New World)?
    House of Burgesses
  9. What was the main reason for the American colonies protestation against British rule?
  10. What war put the English into debt and forced them to tax and closely monitor the troops in Boston?
    French and Indian War
  11. What acts were enforced by the English that were already in place? (1760's)
    Navigation Acts
  12. What occurred in 1770 that resulted in 5 colonists being shot and killed by British troops in Boston?
    Boston Massacre
  13. In 1773 Bostonians protested the Tea Act by staging what famous event?
    Boston Tea Party
  14. The first skirmishes of the Revolutionary War occurred in what two towns?
    Lexington and Concord
  15. What famous English document (signed in 1215 by King John I) was the beginning point for representative government and protection of individual rights?
    Magna Carta
  16. Jefferson used this idea (Dec. of Ind.), which allows for a people to overthrow its rulers if their natural rights are no longer being protected.
    Social Contract Theory
  17. Who was the English philosopher who greatly influenced Jefferson as he wrote the Declaration of Independence?
    John Locke
  18. What French philosopher came up with the idea of a three-branch government?
  19. What religious movement occurred in the 1730s and 1740s in the colonies?
    Great Awakening
  20. What was the first meeting called when 12 colonies sent delegates to Philadelphia to discuss British tyranny (and take action)?
    First Continental Congress
  21. What group sent the Olive Branch Petition and wrote the Declaration of Independence?
    Second Continental Congress
  22. What document was sent to the British informing them of colonial independence?
    Declaration of Independence
  23. What was the first set of laws governing the U.S.?
    Articles of Confederation
  24. What famous convention was held to replace the Articles of Confederation with a more centralized government?
    Constitutional Convention
  25. What was the solution to the problem of representation at the convention called?
    Great Compromise
  26. What was the solution to the problem of how to count slaves for representation purposes?
    Three-fifths Compromise
  27. The Constitution allows for power to be shared between the national government and the states.What kind of system is this?
  28. The opening paragraph of the Constitution ("We the people...") is called what?
  29. The Constitution calls for a three-branch government creating a separation of what?
  30. What is the clause called which gives Congress broad powers?
    Elastic Clause
  31. A word for word interpretation of the Constitution is called...
    Strict Construction
  32. A broad interpretation of the Constitution is called...
    Loose Construction
  33. What amendment abolished slavery?
  34. What amendment guarantees protection of the laws for all citizens?
  35. What amendment gave the vote to African American males?
  36. What amendment gave the vote to women?
  37. What papers were written by Jay, Hamilton, and Madison encouraging the passage of the Constitution?
    The Federalist Papers
  38. What addition was made to the Constitution giving futher protection for individual rights?
    Bill of Rights
  39. What two political parties emerged after the debate over ratification of the Constitution?
    Federalists and Democratic-Republicans
  40. Who developed the economic plan for the U.S. during the 1790's?
    Alexander Hamilton
  41. Who warned Americans about competing political parties in his farewell address?
    George Washington
  42. Who served as chief justice of the Supreme Court for 34 years and helped shape a powerful national government?
    John Marshall
  43. What famous Supreme Court ruling established judicial review?
    Marbury v. Madison
  44. What act of colonial protestation resulted in the Coercive (Intolerable) Acts being passed by the British parliament?
    Boston Tea Party
  45. What document was sent to King George III as a final attempt at peace by the colonists in 1775?
    Olive Branch Petition
  46. What American colonist gave the famous speech stating, "give me liberty or give me death?"
    Patrick Henry
  47. Who served as the commander of the Continental Army during the Revolutionary War?
    George Washington
  48. Who was the leader of the Sons of Liberty?
    Samuel Adams
  49. Who made the famous ride warning colonists that the "Redcoats were coming"?
    Paul Revere
  50. What battle was the turning point in the Revolutionary War (resulting in France becoming our ally)?
  51. Where were Washington's troops encamped during the harsh winter of 1777-1778?
    Valley Forge
  52. What was the last major battle of the Revolutionary War (Cornwallis surrendered to Washington)?
  53. What was the treaty called which gave the U.S. its independence from Great Britain?
    Treaty of Paris 1783
  54. The U.S. fought the British again in what war?
    War of 1812
  55. What law was passed by Jefferson that disallowed trade with other nations (including Britain) and led to the War of 1812?
    Embargo Act
  56. What term was used to describe the British navy forcing Americans into service?
  57. What ordinance was passed in 1785 that divided territory in hte old northwest into townships?
    Land Ordinance of 1785
  58. What ordinance passed in 1787 disallowed slavery in the old northwest?
    Northwest Ordinance
  59. What action allowed Jefferson to double the size of the U.S. in 1803?
    Louisiana Purchase
  60. Who did Jefferson hire to explore the west?
    Lewis & Clark
  61. The post-War of 1812 years were called what (because of prosperity, one political party, etc.)?
    Era of Good Feelings
  62. What year did Alabama become a state?
  63. What congressional agreement allowed Missouri to become a slave state and Maine to become a free state?
    Missouri Compromise
  64. What famous speech outlined American foreign policy in 1823
    Monroe Doctrine
  65. What law forced the five civilized tribes of the southeast to evacuate?
    (Jackson's tenure) Indian Removal Act
  66. What event resulted in the Cherokees marching at gunpoint from GA to OK (1838)?
    Trail of Tears
  67. List four major trails used by settlers in the western part of the U.S..
    Santa Fe, Oregon, Mormon, California
  68. Describe the southern economy before the Civil War. Agriculture:
    mainly cotton
  69. Describe the northern economy before the Civil War. Balanced:
    industrial and agricultural
  70. What country did Texas gain its independence from in 1836?
  71. What was the U.S. goal (or fate) named which called for the acquisition of territory in the west (extending the country from sea to sea)?
    Manifest Destiny
  72. Why did the U.S. fight Mexico (Mexican War) in 1846-1848?
    Land acquisition (California and New Mexico territories)
  73. What famous meeting in 1848 called for women to demand greater equality and opportunity in the U.S.?
    Seneca Falls Convention
  74. Who hosted this convention?
    Lucretia Mott and Elizabeth Cady Stanton
  75. What white abolitionist from Massachusetts produced The Liberator?
    William Lloyd Garrison
  76. What black abolitionist from Maryland produced The North Star?
    Frederick Douglass
  77. What was the purpose of the Underground Railroad?
    To aid the escaped slaves
  78. What black woman used the Underground Railroad to help liberate hundreds of slaves?
    Harriet Tubman
  79. During the reform period of the 1830s and 1840s much of hte public called for abstinence from what?
    alcohol consumption
  80. What woman led reform in prisons in the U.S.?
    Dorothea Dix
  81. Who led reform in education in the 1800s?
    Horace Mann
  82. What religious movement in the early 1800s influenced people to help others (leading to all of these reform movements)?
    Second Great Awakening
  83. What were the communities called which tried to make a "perfect society"?
    Utopian communities
  84. Who founded the Mormon faith? Joseph Smith Who led the Mormons to Utah?
    Brigham Young
  85. What War of 1812 battle resulted in the protection of Baltimore and Francis Scott Key's inspiring "Star Spangled Banner"?
    Ft. McHenry
  86. What War of 1812 battle did Jackson defeat the Creek Indians in AL?
    Horseshoe Bend
  87. What War of 1812 battle did Jackson defeat the British after a truce was called?
    New Orleans
  88. Which Supreme Court case (under Marshall) insured that the national government controlled interstate commerce?
    Gibbons v.Ogden
  89. Which Supreme Court case (under Marshall) ruled that the national bank was in fact constitutional?
    McCulloch v. Maryland
  90. What president gets credit for establishing the spoils system?
    Andrew Jackson
  91. South Carolina's attempt to void the Tariff of 1832 was called the...
    Nullification Crisis
  92. Whitman, Emerson, and Thoreau were writers of what movement?
  93. What congressional solution made California a free state and gave popular sovereignty to the New Mexico and Utah territories?
    Compromise of 1850
  94. What part of the solution in the Compromise of 1850 upset many northerners (there were five parts of this solution)?
    Fugitive Slave Law
  95. What act supported by Stephen Douglas gave popular sovereignty to two territories just west of Missouri?
    Kansas-Nebraska Act
  96. What political party was formed in the 1850's that supported the anti-slavery platform (also, it is known as the party of Lincoln)?
  97. What famous court case upheld the right of slave owners as property holders and disallowed slaves to file court cases?
    Scott v. Sanford (Dred Scott decision)
  98. Who led the massacre at Pottawatomie Creek, NE and led the raid on the federal arsenal at Harper's Ferry?
    John Brown
  99. Who won the presidential election in 1860?
    Abraham Lincoln
  100. What state was the first to secede from the Union in 1860?
    South Carolina
  101. What county in Alabama never seceded from the Union?
    Winston County
  102. What state was actually split over the decision to secede and eventually became two states?
    Virginia (West Virginia)
  103. What was the most famous of the Black military units to fight in the Civil War?
    54th Massachusetts
  104. What act passed by the Republican dominated congress (during the Civil War) gave large land grants to states from the federal government?
    Homestead Act
  105. What act passed by the Republican dominated congress (during the Civil War) gave large land grants to states from the federal government?
    Morill Land Grant Act
  106. What did Lincoln pass on Jan. 1, 1863 granting freedom to slaves in the Confederate states in rebellion?
    Emancipation Proclamation
  107. What did Lincoln suspend during the Civil War, depriving many citizens of their civil rights?
    Writ of Habeas Corpus
  108. What was the first major battle of the Civil War?
    First Bull Run
  109. What battle resulted in the single bloodiest day of the Civil War?
  110. What major three-day battle did the Confederates (under Lee) lose in Pennsylvania?
  111. What battle in Mississippi resulted in a complete blockade of the south by the Union?
  112. What Union general captured Atlanta and continued southeast to Savannah destroying everything in his path?
    General Tecumseh Sherman
  113. What famous speech was given by Lincoln at a consecration ceremony where he reminded Americans of the basic ideal, "All men are created equal?"
    Gettysburg Address
  114. Where did Robert E. Lee surrender to Grant in 1865?
    Appomattox Courthouse
  115. What was the program called that returned southern states to the Union, rebuilt the South's infrastructure, and attempted to protect the rights of free blacks?
  116. What were the laws called passed by southern states attempting to control freedmen and keeping them in a subservient position?
    Black Codes
  117. What were northerners called who moved to the South, voted Republican, and were scorned by southerners after the Civil War?
  118. What were southerners called who voted Republican after the Civil War?
  119. What southern secret society emerged during the Reconstruction that harassed, tormented, and killed blacks demanding equality?
    Ku Klux Klan
  120. What man served as president during Reconstruction and whose legacy (as president) is remembered as being very corrupt?
    President Grant
  121. What congressional solution resulted in Hayes winning the presidential election in 1876 and Reconstruction ending?
    Compromise of 1877
  122. What were the laws called passed in southern states after Reconstruction that stripped African Americans of basic rights like voting?
    Jim Crow Laws
  123. What type of farming existed in the south after the war where farmers rented land to grow crops?
    Tenant farming
  124. What type of farming existed in the south after the war where farmers were forced to share crops with landowners?
  125. What animal was hunted and heavily relied upon by Plains Indians?
  126. What 19th century technological innovation led to the rapid settlement of the western territories?
  127. Many Native Americans were forced to live on...
  128. What great Apache leader surrendered to the U.S. in 1886?
  129. Custer and his cavalry were destroyed by the _____ at the Battle of _______________.
    Sioux, Little Big Horn
  130. Who was the leader of the Sioux nation at the above battle?
    Sitting Bull
  131. The United States government attempted to settle Indians on plots of land to farm with what act?
    Dawes Act
  132. What event resulted in over 200 unarmed Sioux being massacred by U.S. troops in 1890?
    Massacre at Wounded Knee
  133. What were the settlers called who staked legal claims to land in Oklahoma?
    Illegal claims?
  134. How as the plow improved during the late 1800s?
    Plowed several furrows at once.
  135. Why did the open ranges used by cattle disappear?
  136. How did cattle ranchers move their beef back to eastern markets?
    long drives, train
  137. What types of new equipment was developed for farming in the late 1800s?
    cornhuskers, cornbinders, steam powered threshers
  138. List three complaints of farmers in the late 1800s.
    decline in crop prices, tariffs, deflation
  139. How did the farmers organize themselves to fight big business?
    Farmer's Alliance
  140. What was the name given to the farmers who organized themselves politically during this period?
    The Grange
  141. Who was the presidential candidate in 1896 for the Populists?
    James Weaver
  142. What two energy sources were used to power factories in the late 1800s?
    Westinghouse and Alternating currents
  143. Who invented the light bulb and electric generators?
    Thomas Edison
  144. Who invented the telephone?
    Alexander Graham Bell
  145. What types of industry was Alabama involved in during the late 1800s?
  146. What were the captains of industry referred to during the late 1800s?
    Robber Barons
  147. List three important captains of industry during this time period.
    Carnegie, Rockefeller, Samuel Dodd
  148. What theory was used to promote competition in the marketplace?
    Social Darwinism
  149. What idea was promoted by Andrew Carnegie that stated the wealthy should give back riches to the community?
    Gospel of Wealth
  150. What novelist wrote many fictional stories promoting hte "rags to riches" theme?
    Horatio Alger
  151. What types of labor problems did early unions try and cofrect?
    unsafe working conditions, low wages, shorter working hours
  152. What was the movement called which promoted change in government, business, and social welfare?
  153. What did Theodore Roosevelt call journalists who were intent on exposing corruption at the turn of the century?
  154. What novel was highly acclaimed for exposing problems in the meatpacking industry?
    The Jungle
  155. What journalist wrote an expose on Standard Oil?
    Ida Tarbell
  156. Who was the African-American who encouraged blacks to seek social justice and equality and was an early leader of the NAACP?
    W.E.B. DuBois
  157. What was the movement called that DuBois lead?
    Niagara Movement
  158. Who was the African American who encouraged blacks to learn a trade and also founded the Tuskegee Institute in 1881?
    Booker T. Washington
  159. What African American man was famous for his work as an agricultural scientist?
    George Washington Carver
  160. What famous Supreme Court decision upheld segregation in 1896?
    Plessy v. Ferguson
  161. What amendment to the Constitution introduced an income tax?
  162. What amendment made the election of senators by popular vote?
  163. What amendment introduced prohibition as a national law?
  164. What president introduced important conservation methods to preserve millions of acres of western lands?
    Theodore Roosevelt
  165. What act was passed during Wilson's tenure that was intended to break up monopolies?
    Clayton Anti-Trust Act
  166. How did Wilson change the banking system in the United States in 1913?
    Established the Federal Reserve System
  167. What commission was set up by Wilson to monitor the practices of businesses?
    Federal Trade Commission
  168. What three parties entered a candidate for president in 1912?Who won?
    • Republicans, Progressive, Democrats
    • Woodrow Wilson (Democrat)
  169. The United States joined European nations in a race to conquest smaller, "uncivilized" nations and to gain access to their resources and markets. This was known as _________.
  170. What territory was annexed by the U.S. in the Pacific Ocean in 1898?
  171. What war did the U.S. become involved in in 1898?
    Spanish-American War
  172. What name was given to the sensationalistic journalism that served as a major cause of the Spanish-American War?
    yellow journalism
  173. What group of volunteers did T. Roosevelt lead in the famous charge at the Battle of San Juan Hill?
    Rough Riders
  174. What group of islands in the south Pacific did the U.S. gain control over as a result of the defeat of the Spanish?
  175. President Roosevelt led the movement to build what canal in Central America?
    Panama Canal
  176. What addendum to the Monroe Doctrine was made by Roosevelt justifying American intervention in the South American nations in trouble?
    Roosevelt Corollary
  177. How did Taft's foreign diplomacy differ from Roosevelt's?
    Dollar Diplomacy
  178. What were the long term causes of the first World War?
    Imperialism, Militarism, Nationalism, Alliances
  179. What was the immediate cause of WWI?
    The assassination of Archduke Francis Ferdinand
  180. Why did the U.S. enter the war?
    Sinking of the Lusitania and the Zimmerman Note
  181. What types of technological innovations were used in WWI?
    Tank and submarine
  182. What treaty ended WWI?
    Treaty of Versailles
  183. What was the purpose of imperialism?
    To expand your country
  184. What type of fighting took place in World War I?
    trench warfare
  185. Who came up with the idea of the tank?
  186. What type of technological innovation did the Germans bring to WWI?
  187. Who were the Central Powers?
    Germany, Austria-Hungary, Ottoman Empire
  188. Who were the Allied Powers?
    France, Britain, U.S., Russia, Italy
  189. What acts contributed to the Nativist hatred of immigrants especially during and after WWI?
    espionage and sedition
  190. Name several groups of people who benefited from the diminished workforce during WWI.
    Women, African-Americans, Mexican Americans
  191. Which country refused to sign the Treaty of Versailles because the League of Nations was included in it?
    United States
  192. Name the organization in which the nations of the world would join together to ensure security and peace for all members.
    League of Nations
  193. Which president supported the League of Nations?
    Woodrow Wilson
  194. Which political party rejected the League of Nations?
  195. An intense fear of communism and other extreme ideas that gripped the U.S. during the 1920s.
    Red Scare
  196. Trial in which two immigrants were given an unfair trial due to their ethnic background and were eventually put to death.
    Sacco and Vanzetti
  197. Name of the summer in 1919 in which race riots erupted in about 25 cities nationwide.
    Red Summer
  198. By 1922, this organization's membership had grown to about 100,000 and by 1924 to 4 million.
    Ku Klux Klan
  199. Migration of blacks from the South to the North for jobs
    Great Migration
  200. A number limit set up by laws to limit annual immigration.
  201. This type of immigration was banned altogether in the 1920s.
    Asian immigration
  202. List several technological innovations in the 1920s.
    Cars, planes, home appliances
  203. African American literary awakening of the 1920s.
    Harlem Renaissance
  204. African American author of "Their Eyes were Watching God",
    Zora Neale Hurston
  205. List three leading poets/writers of the Harlem Renaissance.
    Claude McKay, Countee Cullen, Langston Hughes
  206. This type of music grew out of African American music in the south, especially ragtime and blues.
  207. What type of age is the 1920s referred to as?
    Jazz Age
  208. Illegal bars that flourished during prohibition.
  209. Case over the teaching the theory of evolution in the classroom.
    Scopes Trial
  210. During the Great Depression, this made farmers unable to repay their debts for land and machinery.
    Falling farm prices
  211. Allowed investors to purchase a stock for only a fraction of its price (10-15%) and borrow the rest.
    Buying on margin
  212. The severe economic decline that lasted from 1929 until the U.S.'s entry into WWII in 1941.
    Great Depression
  213. Houses made out of cardboard paper or scrap metal.
  214. A region in the Great Plains where drought and dust storms took place for much of the 1930s.
    Dust Bowl
  215. During his first 100 days Franklin D. Roosevelt pushed this program.
    The New Deal
  216. This New Deal program insured bank deposits up to $5,000.
    Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (FDIC)
  217. This public works project was created in 1933 to help farmers and create jobs and hydroelectric power.
    Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA)
  218. This program put over 2.5 million unmarried men to work.
    Civilian Conservation Corps (CCC)
  219. This program gave jobs building or improving roads, parks, airports, and other facilities to the unemployed.
    Civil Works Administration
  220. This program provided old-age pensions, disability payments and unemployment benefits.
    Social Security
  221. FDR created this in response to critics who said he was not doing enough for ordinary Americans
    The Second New Deal
  222. Name the Axis Powers in WWII.
    Germany, Italy, Japan
  223. Name the Allies.
    U.S., Britain, France, USSR
  224. Giving in to someone's demands in order to keep peace.
  225. Conference in which Britain and France agreed to let Hitler have the Sudetenland.
    Munich Conference
  226. On Sept. 1, 1939, Hitler invaded this country creating WWII.
  227. A German tactic in which tanks, soldiers, and moving trucks rapidly attack and are there before the foe has time to react.
  228. This country began to expand in the Pacific, controlling most of China by 1940.
  229. On Dec. 7, 1941 the Japanese attacked....
    Pearl Harbor
  230. Women participated in the military during the war by belonging to which organizations?
    WASPS, WAVES, and WAC's
  231. This battle was the turning point of the war in the east
  232. Leader of the U.S. during the war.
    F. Roosevelt
  233. Leader of the USSR during the war.
  234. Leader of Germany during the war.
  235. Leader of Great Britain during the war.
  236. Leader of Italy during the war.
  237. After this battle, Japan was unable to launch any more offensive operations in the Pacific.
  238. Japanese suicide planes.
  239. Top secret project to create the atomic bomb.
    Manhattan Project
  240. U.S. military leader in Europe.
  241. U.S. military leader in the Pacific.
  242. Places where prisoners of war and political prisoners are confined, usually under harsh conditions.
    Concentration camps
  243. Where did the U.S. drop the atomic bomb?
    Hiroshima and Nagasaki
Card Set
Alabama High School Graduation Exams
social studies