CIS 5800 Quiz 1.txt

  1. **What is a project?
    A planned undertaking of related activities to reach an objective that has a beginning and an end
  2. **Attributes of a project
    • 1. Temporary (have a specific beginning and end)
    • 2. Organizational projects are prioritized for consideration and selection
    • 3. Projects require senior management support
    • 4. Projects are led by a project manager
    • 5. Project members often come and go
    • 6. Projects requires resources
    • 7. Projects developed using progressive elaboration. As time progresses, the specific details of the project become clearer
    • 8. A project has a unique purpose
    • 9. A project should have a primary customer or sponsor
    • 10. A project involves uncertainty: (a) Every project is unique; it is sometimes difficult to define its objectives clearly, estimate how long it will take or determine how much it will cost; (b) Uncertainty makes project management challenging
  3. **Stakeholders of a project
    Individuals which will benefit, participate, or be impacted by the proposed system.

    • 1. Project sponsor: provide executive support, direction, & funding
    • 2. Project manager: leads and manages the project
    • 3. Project team members: provide technical and support expertise
    • 4. Organizational employees: those that are directly or indirectly affected by the proposed project
    • 5. Community: competitors and business partners impacted by the project outcome
    • 6. Customers
    • 7. Influencers
    • 8. Project Management Office (PMO)
    • 9. Performing organization: those doing the work of the project
  4. What is a project manager?
    A person with a diverse set of skills - general management, leadership, technical, conflict management, & customer relationship - who is responsible for initiating, planning, executing, controlling, monitoring, & closing down a project
  5. **Skills/rolls of a project manager**
    • 1. People skills
    • 2. Listening
    • 3. Communication
    • 4. Team building
    • 5. Problem solving, critical thinking
    • 6. Flexibility
    • 7. Leadership
    • 8. Integrity, ethical behavior, conflict management
    • 9. Strong building trust
    • 10. Understands, balances priorities
    • 11. Negotiator
    • 12. Influencer
    • 13. Motivator
    • 14. Self-confidence
    • 15. Human resource
  6. **Why do projects fail?***
    • #1 to #3 are project failure statistics
    • #4 to #8 are OASIG Report - top 5 reasons for project failure
    • #9 to #18 are Wallace and Keil (2004)'s 53 items that reflect the range of likely software project risks, summarizing them within 10 broad categories
    • 1. Failed communication
    • 2. Lack of planning
    • 3. Poor quality control
    • 4*. Lack of attention to human & organizational factors
    • 5*. Poor project management
    • 6*. Poor articulation of user requirements
    • 7*. Inadequate attention to business needs and goals
    • 8*. Failure to involve users appropriately
    • 9. Lack of executive support: Lack of top management support and organizational commitment for the project
    • 10. Lack of user input/involvement: Lack of user participation, users resistant to change, lack of user cooperation, and lack of user commitment to the project
    • 11. Inexperienced project manager: Lack of leadership skills, project progress not monitored closely, and ineffective communication
    • 12. Inexperienced team members: Inadequately trained team members, lack of team members' commitment to the project, and frequent turnover within the project team
    • 13. Unclear business objectives: Ill-defined project goals, conflicting systems requirements, continually changing project objectives, and undefined project success criteria
    • 14. Unreliable estimates: Inadequate estimation of project schedule, budget, and required resources and unclear project milestones
    • 15. Lack of effective project management methodology
    • 16. New software infrastructure: Use of new technology that has not been used in prior projects and use of immature and highly complex technology
    • 17. Unstable organizational environment: Changes in organizational management during the project, corporate politics impeding the project, and restructuring organization during the project
    • 18. Unreliable outside suppliers: Dependence on unreliable suppliers and involvement of many external suppliers

    Project failures can be defined in terms of finishing over budget, not being completed on time, or failing to deliver a system that meets stakeholder expectations.
  7. **Why do projects succeed? {from The Standish Group, “Extreme CHAOS,” (2001)}***
    • 1. Executive support
    • 2. User involvement
    • 3. Experienced project manager
    • 4. Clear business objectives
    • 5. Minimized scope
    • 6. Standard software infrastructure
    • 7. Firm basic requirements
    • 8. Formal methodology
    • 9. Reliable estimates
    • 10. Other criteria such as small milestones, proper planning, competent staffs, and ownership
  8. **Standish Group findings and criticism of Standish Group
    • Findings:
    • •IT Projects have a terrible track record
    • •A 1995 Standish Group study (CHAOS) found that only 16.2% of IT projects were successful in meeting scope, time, and cost goals
    • •Over 31% of IT projects were canceled before completion, costing over $81 billion in the U.S. alone
    • From November 6th through the 9th, 1995, The Standish Group held CHAOS University in Chatham, Massachusetts. CHAOS University was a follow-up to the CHAOS study published in January 1995. The Standish Group estimates that almost 80,000 projects were cancelled in 1995. While The Standish Group identified the ten main causes of these failures (along with possible solutions), it was unclear whether these solutions could be implemented. In response to this and by invitation only, CHAOS University brought together 60 IT professionals for the purpose of digging down to create two additional levels of detail in the implementation of the success factors...The CHAOS Report surveyed IT executive managers. For the purposes of project comparison, The Standish Group used the project success criteria from the surveyed IT managers to create a success potential chart. The success criteria were then weighted based on the input from the surveyed IT managers. The most important criteria, "user involvement", was given 19 success points
    • while the least important, "hard-working, focused staff" was given 3 success points. The table below lists the criterion in order of importance with their appropriate success points. -- Unfinished Voyages - A Follow-Up to the CHAOS Report
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    • Criticism:
    • Most such academic papers and guru reports cite the same source for their crisis concern—a study published by the Standish Group more than a decade ago, a study that reported huge failure rates, 70% or more, and minuscule success rates, a study that condemned software practice by the title they employed for the published version of their study, The Chaos Report [4]. So the Standish Chaos Report could be considered fundamental to most claims of crisis. What do we really know about that study?...Objective research study findings do not, in general, support those Standish conclusions...But now there is a significant new thought regarding those Standish findings. One pair of researchers [3], combing carefully over that original Standish report, found a key description of where those findings came from. The report says, in Standish’s own words, “We then called and mailed a number of confidential surveys to a random sample of top IT executives, asking them to share failure stories.” -- By (Practical Programmer) Robert L. Glass (The Standish Report: Does It Really Describe a Software Crisis?)
    • Its methods are not fully disclosed, and the bits that are disclosed are deeply flawed. Its results are completely unreliable. There are good critiques of the report out there, notably by Robert Glass and by Jørgensen and Moløkken, that point to the unreliability of the study and question the claim of a software crisis. -- By Jorge Aranda (Standish, the CHAOS report, and science) (
  9. **What are the unique features of an IT project?**
    • 1. Constant change in applied technologies within the organization
    • 2. Difficulty in finding and keeping experienced IT project employees
    • 3. Manage extensive amount of user participation required
    • 4. Selecting the appropriate systems development methodology
    • 5. Most IT solutions are "one-of-a-kind" - never been tried before
    • 6. Specifics of the project likely to change during the life of the project
    • 7. Technology changes may change the project itself

    • Firms must make decision on where to invest
    • Challenge of managing scope
    • Scope may change during the course of the project
    • Technological is in constant flux
  10. **Five process groups**
    • 1. Initiating process group: Defining and authorizing a project. Need a sponsor and project manager. Initiating processes take place during each phase of a project. Even ending a project requires initiating activities to ensure that all work is complete, that lessons learned are recorded, work is accepted and resources assigned
    • 2. Planning processing group: A scheme to ensure that the project addresses the organization's needs. Various plans, defining the knowledge areas (schedule management, cost management, scope management, etc.) are combined into a project management plan, coordinating and encompassing information from all other plans
    • 3. Executing process group: Includes coordinating people and other resources to carry out the various plans and produce the products, services or results of the phase or project. Examples of executing processes include developing the project team, directing and managing the project team, performing quality assurance, distributing information, and selecting sellers of services or equipment or software
    • 4. Monitoring and controlling process group: Include regularly measuring and monitoring progress to ensure that the project team meets project objectives. Corrective action is taken when necessary
    • 5. Closing process group: Include formalizing acceptance of the project phase or project and ending it efficiently. Includes activities such as archiving project files, closing out contracts, documenting lessons learning, gaining acceptance of the delivered work

    A project life cycle is a collection of project phases. The life cycle determines what will be performed in each phase. Different projects may have different phases, but all projects will include all 5 process groups. The phases should not be confused with project management process groups. The group is the group of activities related to the process in question. The activities can take place at different phases. The project processes are not phases - they are actions that are grouped together.
  11. **Project Management Life Cycle (5 phases)
    • It includes the necessary steps, from beginning to end, needed to complete a project. The end of each phase is referred to as a stage gate, phase exit, or kill point, and usually marks the completion of deliverables.
    • A phase defines work to be done and personnel required
    • Life cycles vary by industry and organization

    • 1. Initiate - potential projects are identified & evaluated in terms of importance to the organization
    • 2. Plan - scope, time, cost (the triple constraint), and risk management planning takes place
    • 3. Execute - project plan is followed
    • 4. Control & monitor - project performance is measured against the project plan
    • 5. Close - final paper work completed and sign off by all stakeholders
  12. **Nine core knowledge areas**
    • 1. Scope management - defining and managing all of the work required to complete the project successfully
    • 2. Time management - estimating how long it will take to complete the work, developing an acceptable schedule, ensuring timely completion
    • 3. Cost management - preparing and managing the budget
    • 4. Quality management - ensuring the project will satisfy the stated or implied needs for which it was undertaken
    • 5. Human resources management - making effective use of the people involved in the project
    • 6. Communications management - generating, collecting, dissemidating and storing project information
    • 7. Risk management - identifying, analyzing and responding to risks
    • 8. Procurement management - acquiring or procuring goods from outside the organization
    • 9. Project integration management - affects and is affected by all of the other knowledge areas
  13. **Triple and quadruple constraints**
    • Triple constraint describes how basic elements of a project - scope, cost, & time - interrelate, making trade-offs between these 3 goals.
    • Quadruple constraints is adding quality to the 3 factors, since quality might be sacrificed to stay within the other constraints.
  14. **What is the purpose if a Work Breakdown Structure (WBS)?
    Shows the work activities deliverables; a listing of the activities necessary for the completion of the project
  15. **Systems Development Life Cycle (SDLC)**
    A common methodology for systems development that marks the phases or steps of information systems development.

    • 1. Systems planning: The need for a new or enhanced system is identified and the proposed system's scope is determined (identifies needs, investigates system and determines scope)
    • 2. Systems analysis: Systems requirements are determined and an alternative is chosen among a set of alternatives to best meet these requirements within the cost, labor, and technical levels to which the organization is willing to commit (studying current procedure and determining requirements, recommending solution)
    • 3. System design: Descriptions of the recommended alternative are converted into logical and then physical system specifications; creating the system's technical specifications (logical and physical design elements)
    • 4. Systems implementation: The system specifications are turned into a working system that is tested and then put into use; building and installing the system (turning specifications into a working system; testing and implementing it)
    • 5. Systems maintenance: Programmers make the changes that users request and modify the systems to reflect changing business conditions; operating and improving the system during its lifetime (seeing problems and making changes)
  16. **Organizational Structures
    • 1. Functional: A traditional hierarchical organization, sometimes thought of as resembling a pyramid, with top management at the fulcrum, direct workers at the bottom, and middle managers in between
    • 2. Projectized: A type of organization structure where people from different functional backgrounds work with each other throughout the lifetime of the project
    • 3. Matrix: A type of organization structure which typically crosses functional design (on one axis) with some other design characteristic (on the other axis)
  17. **Project Management Office (PMO) functions
    An organizational unit created to centralize and coordinate the projects within an organization

    • 1. Collect & organize project data
    • 2. Develop & maintain templates & standards
    • 3. Develop or coordinate training
    • 4. Develop & provide a career path for PMs
    • 5. Provide PMs consulting services
    • 6. Provide structure to house PMs while in or between projects
  18. **How to avoid wasting time
    • 1. Rushing in: don't go right to programming
    • 2. Life cycle rut: don't use a life cycle because it's familiar
    • 3. Poor communication
    • 4. Excessive research: analysis paralysis
    • 5. Untamed mail: standard subject line for project
    • 6. Indecision: don't let indecisive stakeholders slow things down
    • 7. Obsessing: on a problem, escalate
    • 8. Between meeting paralysis: don't wait for the next meeting
    • 9. Embellishment: by programmers add features
  19. **What is the purpose of a Gantt chart?
    A bar chart showing the start and end dates for the activities of a project.

    • 1. Duration, beginning and end of tasks
    • 2. Overlap of tasks
    • 3. Slack time
    • 4. Not intended to indicate tasks ordered
  20. **What is the purpose of a Network diagram?
    A schematic display that illustrates the various tasks in a project as well as their sequential relationship.

    • 1. Sequence of activities
    • 2. Task dependencies
    • 3. Slack time
    • 4. Does not show overlap but does show parallel
  21. **Project management process groups. Processes within the process group.
    Major project phases, such as initiating, planning, executing, controlling, & closing a project. All of these process groups together are known as the project management life cycle. Each of these major process groups may include many subprocesses or activities.

    Describe, organize, & complete the work of the project, & they are applicable to most projects.

    Process is a series of continuous actions that bring about a particular result, end or condition.

    • Five process groups:
    • 1. Initiating: This involves authorizing a project or process to begin. Two processes - (a) Develop project charter; (b) Develop preliminary project scope statement - definition
    • 2. Planning: One of the most extensive sets of processes involving defining goals and selecting the best way to achieve them. Many of the activities that require management technologies and project management software involve planning processes. Twenty-one processes - (a) Develop project management plan; (b) Scope planning; (c) Scope definition; (d) Create WBS; (e) Activity definition; (f) Activity sequencing; (g) Activity resource estimating...
    • 3. Executing: Once the project is planned, the next step is carrying out the plan; involve coordinating people and other resources to carry out the plan. Seven processes - (a) Direct and manage project execution; (b) Perform quality assurance; (c) Acquire project team; (d) Develop project team; (e) Information distribution; (f) Request seller responses; (g) Select sellers
    • 4. Monitoring and controlling: Designed to regularly monitor and measure progress during execution in order to identify variances from the plan to take corrective action when necessary. Twelve processes - (a) Monitor and control project work; (b) Integrated change control; (c) Scope variation; (d) Scope control; (e) Schedule control; (f) Cost control; (g) Perform quality control...
    • 5. Closing: Occur when a project is formally accepted and brought to an end. Two processes - (a) Close project; (b) Contract closure
  22. **5 Project team development stages**
    • 1. Forming: Becoming familiar with fellow team members, establish team goals, provide work assignments. This stage is completed when a majority of the members feel that they are part of the team (team members get to know each other, establish goals, work assignments)
    • 2. Storming: Set goals, establish power levels, identify leadership roles. This stage is completed when they have a relatively clear understanding of each member's role within the team (struggle to establish roles)
    • 3. Norming: Build interpersonal relationships within team members, develop a common purpose for the project, develop standard procedures. This stage ends with members having a strong sense of proper team behavior (normal operating procedures)
    • 4. Performing: Start actual project work. Stage ends when the project is completed. For permanent, ongoing project teams, performing is the last stage in their evolution (undertake actual project work)
    • 5. Adjourning: Complete project assignments, team members are released from the project and reassigned, different emotional reactions exhibited such as satisfied, happy, disappointed (wrap up and engage to activities related to subsequent assignments)
  23. **4 Project team performance factors
    • 1. Work design: autonomy, skill variety, task identity, task significance
    • 2. Composition: ability, personality, roles and diversity, size, flexibility, preference for teamwork
    • 3. Context: adequate resources, leadership, climate of trust, performance evaluation and rewards
    • 4. Process: Common purpose and goals, confidence to be successful, low to moderate conflict level
  24. **Team selection
    • 1. Keep teams small and manageable - 5 or less
    • 2. Get the right personalities - strong work ethics, upbeat
    • 3. Embrace diversity - avoid groupthink
    • 4. Reuse successful teams
    • 5. Plan ahead to get the right people
    • 6. Use your network to identify right people
  25. **4 Need theories of motivation
    • 1. Hierarchy of needs: (Maslow) physiological, safety, social, esteem, and self-actualization - where as each need is met, the next higher-level need becomes the motivating focus.
    • 2. ERG theory: 3 core needs - existence, relatedness, & growth - in which more than one need may be operative at the same time and that if the fulfillment of a higher-level need is unrealized, the desire to satisfy a lower-level need becomes the motivating focus. Existence focuses on satisfying basic needs. Relatedness focuses on interpersonal needs. Growth focuses on personal development.
    • 3. Two-factor theory: (Herzberg) (a) Intrinsic factors - motivational factors - like achievement, recognition, advancement, and responsibility are related to job satisfaction; (b) Extrinsic factors - hygiene factors - like salary, relationships with colleagues, and work conditions are associated with dissatisfaction.
    • 4. Theory of needs: (McClelland) a person's motivation can be explained by their need for achievement (drive to excel), power (control the behavior of others), & affiliation (close and friendly relationships).
  26. **7 Process theories of motivation
    • 1. Theory X: (McGregor) assumes that people dislike work, are lazy, dislike responsibility, & must be coerced into working hard
    • 2. Theory Y: (McGregor) assumes that people like work, are creative, like autonomy, and seeking responsibility
    • 3. Theory Z: (Ouchi) reflects the Japanese work philosophy which includes a belief in lifetime employment, strong company loyalty, and group consensus
    • 4. Goal-setting theory: (Locke) a specific & difficult goal with clear feedback related to how well a person is doing in relation to meeting a goal, can be used to enhance a person's work productivity; give higher, specific job performance goals
    • 5. Equity theory: (Adams) individuals compare their work inputs and outcomes with others and then respond to eliminate any inequities between those comparisons
    • 6. Reinforcement theory: (Komaki, Coombs, Schepman) states that both positive and negative feedback conditions behavior, basis of reward systems within many organizations
    • 7. Expectancy theory: (Vroom) people exert a high level of effort when (a) s/he believes that effort will lead to a good performance appraisal, (b) that a good appraisal will lead to rewards, & (3) that these rewards will satisfy the person's needs

    Motivation is an individual's intensity, direction, & persistence of effort toward attaining a goal.
  27. **How to motivate team members**
    • 1. Recognize individual differences: Because you team members will have different needs and goals, it is essential that you learn what is important to each person
    • 2. Use specific goals and feedback: Teams should set specific goals, with specific feedback on how each member is doing, in order to achieve optimal performance
    • 3. Allow team members to participate in decisions that affect them: Team members should be allowed to participate in most decisions that affect them in order to increase productivity, commitment, motivation, and job satisfaction
    • 4. Link rewards to performance: Rewards should be clearly tied to performance in order to optimally motivate team members
    • 5. Check the system for equity: Monitor team members for perceptions of inequality to make sure that any differences in experiences, skills, abilities, and effort lead to clear differences in pay, jobs assignments, and other rewards
  28. **Manager vs. Leader
    Manager: a formal position for authority in an organization that is responsible for planning, organizing, directing, monitoring, and controlling the activities of others or project activities. May or may not be effective leaders. Focus on doing the things right. Essentially keeping the team on track. Focus on objectives, telling how and when, shorter range, organization and structure, autocracy, restraining, maintaining, conforming, imitating, administrating, controlling, procedures, consistency, risk avoidance, bottom line.

    Leader: a person who by virtue of his/her personal attributes, can exert influence on others, ability to influence people toward the achievement of goals. May or may not be manager. Focus on doing the right things. Focus on vision, selling what and why, longer range, people, democracy, enabling, developing, challenging, originating, innovating, directing, policy, flexibility, risk opportunity, top line
  29. **Traits vs. behavioral vs. contingency theories of leadership
    Trait: A set of leadership theories which state that personality, appearance, competence, and other personal characteristics differentiate leaders from non-leaders

    Behavioral: state that a person's actions, rather than personal traits, determine his/her potential to be a successful leader. Two types - (a) Task-oriented leaders: use influence to get tasks completed, less concern for relationships among team members; (b) Relational-oriented leaders: emphasize a personal interest in team members and accept individual differences as being positive, in order to gain greatest influence

    Contingency: state that the situation is most critical for identifying leadership success. Suggesting that no particular leadership style or approach is always best. Fiedler Contingency Model shows that both task- & relationship-oriented leaders can be successful depending upon the leader-member relationship (good or poor), the task structure (high or low), & the power of the leader (strong or weak)
  30. **5 General leadership guidelines
    • 1. Challenging the process: search for opportunities to change the status quo, experiment & take risks
    • 2. Inspiring a shared vision: believe they can make a difference & envision the future
    • 3. Enabling others to act: cultivate collaboration & build spirited teams
    • 4. Modeling the way: set example, create standards of excellence, help others achieve success
    • 5. Encourage the heart: recognize contributions of others & celebrate the accomplishments, making them feel like heroes
  31. **Positional and personal power
    Positional power: power derived from an individual's position in an organization. 5 Types: (1) Legitimate - influencing people based on being in a position of authority; (2) Reward - based on being in a position to distribute rewards; (3) Coercive - based on being in a position to punish; (4) Informative - based on their dependency on controlled information; (5) Ecological - based on controlling physical resources such as equipment & space.

    Personal power: power derived from an individual's unique characteristics. 3 Types: (1) Expert - based on having expertise, special skills, or knowledge; (2) Referent - based on their strong affection, admiration, or loyalty; (3) Charismatic - based on having a favorable personality and interpersonal style
  32. **2 Types of conflict
    • 1. Functional: Conflict that supports the goals of the team and improves its performance. Low to moderate levels of Task (what) or Process (how) conflict can increase a team's performance.
    • 2. Dysfunctional: Conflict that hinders group performance and is destructive to team performance. Relationship conflict or high level of Task or Process conflict will hinder a team's performance

    Conflict is an opposition of people in an organization from incompatible or opposing needs, drives, wishes, external or internal demands.
  33. **7 Causes of conflict**
    • 1. Schedule: disagreements on task duration and sequencing
    • 2. Project priorities: disagreements on project vision and scope
    • 3. Manpower: disagreement on the utilization of people, especially those simultaneously involved in multiple projects
    • 4. Technical: disagreements over system design elegance and resources limitations
    • 5. Administration: disagreements due to authority over key resources
    • 6. Personality: disagreements due to dysfunctional interpersonal interactions
    • 7. Cost: disagreements rising from increasing resource constraints as a project evolves
  34. **9 Conflict resolution
    • 1. Problem solving - face-to-face meetings
    • 2. Shared goals - create shared goals
    • 3. Resource expansion - additional resources
    • 4. Avoidance
    • 5. Smoothing - play down differences
    • 6. Compromise
    • 7. Authoritative command - mandated outcome ("can't get along will get fired")
    • 8. Altering team member behavior
    • 9. Altering team structure - limit interaction
  35. **5 Political skills
    • 1. Understand what your organization values: align your objectives with those of the organization
    • 2. Understand how decisions are made in your organization: and who truly has influence on those decisions
    • 3. Expand and strengthen your network: to gain access to scarce resources and expertise
    • 4. Develop a clear and easy to communicate story: to inspire confidence to get the most from your team
    • 5. Lead by example: do the right thing
  36. **8 Reasons for outsourcing**
    • 1. Reduce or control costs
    • 2. Free up internal resources
    • 3. Gain access to world-class capabilities
    • 4. Increase revenue potential of the organization
    • 5. Reduce time to market
    • 6. Increase process efficiencies
    • 7. Outsource non-core activities such as paycheck and HR
    • 8. Compensate for lack of specific capabilities or skills
  37. **11 Challenges for managing global teams
    • 1. Technological challenges - price, quality, & pervasiveness of infrastructure; in addition to infrastructure challenges, the hardware & software environment can also be different, causing serious communication & integration problems such as Windows vs. Unix
    • 2. Cultural
    • 3. Expertise-related - human resources, different skill sets, different personnel costs
    • 4. Environmental - transborder data flow, ownership of intellectual property, data collection and flow restrictions, legal policies, currency fluctuations
    • 5. Language - communication language and norms
    • 6. Work culture - work skills, habits, & attitudes toward work
    • 7. Aesthetics - art, music, & culture
    • 8. Education - attitudes toward education & literacy
    • 9. Religion, beliefs, and attitudes - spiritual institutions & value
    • 10. Social organizations - family & social cohesiveness
    • 11. Political life - political stability, human rights
  38. **Culture
    Collective programming of the mind that distinguishes the members of one group or category of people from another
  39. **Cultural dimensions for various countries
    • 1. **Power distance: describe how different societies handle human inequality issues, high power (autocracy) vs. low power (collaborative, less hierarchical)
    • 2. Uncertainty avoidance: level of risk taking common to a culture, some cultures are more cautious, reluctant to adopt new technology
    • 3. Individualism/collectivism: reflects the extent to which a society values the position of an individual vs. the position of a group, peer pressure
    • 4. Masculinity/femininity: degree to which a society is characterized by masculine or faminine qualities such as assertiveness vs. nurturance
    • 5. Concept of time: extent to which a culture has a longer- or shorter-term orientation
    • 6. Life focus: a cultural characteristic that contrasts the extent to which a culture focused on the quantity (more competitive, value achievements & acquisition of material goods) vs. quality of life (value relationship, interdependence, & concern for others)

    • **Critical cultural dimensions for various countries:
    • Moderately low power distance
    • Highly individualistic
    • Moderately masculine
    • Moderately weak uncertainty avoidance
    • Long term concept of time
    • Quantity life focus

    • Moderately low power distance
    • Moderately individualistic
    • Moderately masculine
    • Moderately strong uncertainty avoidance
    • Long term concept of time
    • Quantity life focus

    • Moderately high power distance
    • Highly to moderately collectivistic
    • Moderately to highly masculine
    • Moderately weak uncertainty avoidance
    • Short term concept of time
    • Quality life focus

    • GROUP 4: JAPAN
    • Moderately high power distance
    • Moderately collectivistic
    • High masculinity
    • Strong uncertainty avoidance
    • Long term concept of time
    • More on quality than quantity life focus

    • High power distance
    • Highly to moderately collectivistic
    • Masculine
    • Moderately weak uncertainty avoidance
    • Short term concept of time
    • Changing from quality to quantity life focus
  40. Definition of motivation
    An individual's intensity, direction, & persistence of effort toward attaining a goal
  41. Global project team development strategies
    • 1. Hire individuals experienced in working across cultures
    • 2. Hire who can speak multiple languages
    • 3. Make organization culture more flexible
    • 4. Sensitize teams to global and political issues
  42. **Matching questions**
    • Project -- A temporary endeavor
    • Sponsor -- A key proponent
    • Phase exit -- A management review point
    • Stakeholder -- An interested party
    • Process -- A series of actions
    • Progressive elaboration -- filling in the details
    • Work Breakdown Structure -- Deliverables
    • PMBOK -- A repository
    • Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) -- A personality test
  43. **Fill-in questions**
    • The probability of success starts low.
    • A bar chart showing the start and end dates: Gantt Chart
    • Used to determine the earliest possible completion date: critical path method or network or diagram
    • A small part of a project: task or deliverable
    • A type of organizational structure that typically crosses functional design (on one axis) with some other design characteristic: matrix
    • Incorporates various estimates of the work effort: PERT
    • A motivational theory that holds that existence, relatedness, and growth are important needs: ERG Theory
    • A process theory of motivation that holds that positive and negative feedback is important: Reinforcement Theory
    • Focuses on objectives, administrating and consistency are characteristics of a manager.
    • Power based on position of authority: Legitimate Power
    • Power based on position of administration: Referent Power
Card Set
CIS 5800 Quiz 1.txt
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