Chapter 8

  1. In the late 20th century, nurse and anthropologist ____ helped develop the concept that a client has physical, spiritual, psychological, and socioeconomic needs that exist in our complex, diverse world.
    Madeleine Leininger
  2. ____ is the accumulated learning for generational groups of individuals within structured of non-structured societies.
  3. It is a heritage that is learned through formal and informal experiences through the life cycle. Culture consists of the combined heritage of
    • language and communication style
    • health beliefs and health practices
    • customs and rituals
    • religious beliefs and practices
  4. Culture is influenced by
    • environment
    • expectations of society
    • national orgin
  5. An individual ____, ____, and ____ according to specified values within a culture.
    • learns
    • evaluates
    • behaves
  6. A pattern of ____, ____, ____, ____, ____, ____, and other behaviors emerge from the learned culture and are shared in a defined group over time as an identifiable heritage.
    • values
    • attitudes
    • social
    • political
    • economic
    • educational
  7. ____ are groups within dominant cultures. ____ form because individuals share characteristics that belong to an identifiable group such as occupations, religions, geographic origins, or age.
  8. Nursing students also comprise a subculture because of the:
    • unique experiences
    • growth process that are universal components of all student nursing populations
  9. ____ is used to differentiate large groups of humankind that share common biological and sociological characteristics. ____ implies genetic characteristics associated with having ancestors from a specific part of the world.
  10. Race should not be confused with
    ethnicity or culture
  11. Racial mixing has blurred the physical characteristics of
  12. The term ____ can be misleading.
  13. ____ is the common heritage shared by a specific culture.
  14. ____ are becoming so interwoven and blended that specific identification of cultural groups is difficult. The mix of cultural groups in the United States changed in the 20th century.
  15. ____ is the fastest-growing group in the United States.
    Hispanic Community
  16. African American common health concerns
    • Hypertension
    • Sickle cell disease
    • Skin disorders
    • Lactose enzyme deficiency
    • Tuberculosis
  17. Natice American common health concerns
    • Alcoholism
    • Suicide
    • Tuberculosis
    • Malnutrition
    • Communicable disease
    • Maternal and infant morbidity and mortality
    • Diabetes melitus and its complications
    • Hypertension
    • Gallbladder disease
  18. American Nurses Association (ANA), promote nursing issues of cultural competency and ethnic diversity. Three concepts are important
    • Knowledge of cultural diversity is vital at all levels of nursing practice
    • Approaches to nursing practice that do no incorporate cultural sensitivity are ineffective
    • Knowledge about cultures and their impact on interactions with health care is essential for nurses
  19. ____ is a belief based on preconceived notions about certain groups of people. ____ can be unfair, biases beliefs.
  20. Many people have been the victims of prejudice.
    • Overweight individuals
    • Homosexuals
    • Racial groups
    • Authority figures
  21. ____ is the belief that one's own culture is the best and only acceptable way.
  22. ____ refers to classifying or categorizing people and believing that all those belonging to a certain group are alike.
  23. People are more alike than different
  24. ____ is the understanding and tolerance of all cultures and lifestyles. It is crucial in the deliverly of comptent nursing care.
    Cultural sensitivity
  25. A great deal of ____ takes place using nonverbal cues, hand signals, and pictures. Clients will be appreciative if you learn a few words in their language. Remember that a smile is understood in almost any language.
  26. Personal space refers to a person's comfort zone. Types of personal space include
    • intimate space (reserved for close family members)
    • personal space (for contact with the general public)
  27. ____ is often culture related.
  28. ____ can give important cues about clients.
    Eye contact
  29. In the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints (Mormon) and Seventh Day Adventist religious, diet also plays an important part. Most followers eliminate
    • tea
    • coffee
    • alcohol
    • strong spices
  30. Even though members of a religious, ethnic, or cultural group may share similarities, each person is ____. Remember not to stereotype individuals. All members of a groupd do not behave or believe alike.
  31. Kosher laws govern dietary practices for ____. Frozen kosher meals are available. The person's family can also bring in food.
    Orthodox Jews
  32. Muslims (Moslems) are believers in Islam. ____ and ____ are prohibiteed.
    • pork
    • alcohol
  33. No blood and blood products. Autologous blood transfusions allowed by some.
    Jehovah's Witness
  34. All body parts must be buried together.
  35. ____ teaches that good health results from harmony of the universe with proper balancing of internal and external forces. Following ____ is to know and to live a natural life.
    • Taoism
    • Tao
  36. ____ is defined as caring for clients while taking into consideration their religious and sociocultural backgrounds.
    Transcultural nursing
  37. Madeleine Leininger, the international leader in the field, has also called this ethnic-sensitive nursing care or
  38. Communication is the key.
  39. All ____ bring cultural, ethnic, and religious backgrounds to nursing. Learn from cultural diversity, whether from clients or coworkers.
Card Set
Chapter 8
Transcultrual Healthcare