CH 22-23P Urinary & Reproductive System Pathologies

  1. Also known as a Bladder Infection, an inflammation of the urinary bladder or ureters or both. It occurs more often in women than in men. This condition is often caused by bacterial infection from neighboring organs such as the kidney or uretha. Characterized by pain, blood in urine, or urgency and frequency of urination.

    Positon Client for comfort, and avoid abdomen if pressure causes pain
    What is Cystits?

    Is Massage allowed?
  2. Also known as Bright's Disease, is an inflammation of the glomeruli. This disease often follows other infections and is characterized by blood in the urine, edema and hypertension.

    Obtain physician clearance. Once granted, use light pressure and massage for only short durations, avoiding lymphatic massage.
    What is Glomerulonephritis?
  3. A condition characterized by high levels of uric acid in the blood as a result of high production or an inability of the kidneys to excrete this substance. Uric acid is coverted to sodium urate crystals which deposit into joints, kidneys, and other tissues.. More common in men than women. when it settles into joints, this is a form of arthritis.

    Local contraindication of the area.
    What is Gout?
  4. Crystals in the urine, such as uric acid or calcium salts. Causes include an excessive calcium intake or abnormally alkaline or acidic urine.

    Obtain physician clearance if client is taking medications for treatment
    What are Kidney Stones?
  5. The inability to control urination, this condition may be the result of an infection or damage to the central or peripheral nervous system or injury to the urinary sphincter or perineal structures, which can occur durring childbirth.
    Sneezing, coughing, laughing, late stages of pregnancy or straining while lifting heavy objects.

    Abdominal message is contraindicated if client is uncomfortable.
    What is Urinary Incontinence?
  6. An infection of one or more structures of the urinary system. Most are caused by bacteria and are more common tin women than in men because the women's urethra is shorter. Symptoms include increased urination, burning and pain during urination, and, is the infection is severe, blood and pus in the urine.

    Abdominal massage is contraindicated if pressure causes pain.
    What is a Urinary Tract Infection?
  7. The two effects of Massage on the Urinary system are:
    • 1. Increases urine output
    • 2. Promotes the excretion of nitrogen, inorganic phosphorus, and sodium chloride in urine.
  8. The spontaneous or induced termination of pregnancy before the fetus has developed to the stage of viability (24 weeks). Symptoms are uterine contractions, uterine hemmorhage, dialation of the cervix, and expulsion of all or part of the fetus.
    What is Abortion/Miscarriage?
  9. The absences of menses. May be caused by dysfunction of the hypothalamus, pituitary, ovaries, or uterus or by certain medications. This is normal before puberty, during pregnancy, after menopause or after surgerical removal of both ovaries or uterus.
    What is Amenorrhea?
  10. An enlargement of the prostate gland, which is common among men after age 50. This condition is not malignant or inflammatory, but usually progressive and can obstruct the urethra and interfere with the flow of urine. Possible accompanying symptoms include frequency of urine, urage to urinate at night, pain, and urinary tract infection.
    What is Benign Prostatic Hypertrophy?
  11. Caused by the bacterium, this condition is one of the most common sexually transmitted diseases in North America and is frequent cause of sterility. In women, early symptoms are thick vaginal discharge with localized buring or itching. Men will experience a penile discharge with painful urination as well as buring or itching. Often called the Silent STD and leading cause of pelvic inflammatory disease in women.
    What is Chlamydia?
  12. Sexually transmitted warts of the genital and perianal are in men and women. Caused by the virus human papillomavirus (HPV), This virus is the cause of common warts of the hands and feet, as well as lesions of the mucous membranes of the oral, anal and genitial cavities. Transmission has occured without the presences of warts, which indicates may occur in bodily fluids such as semen or cervical secretions.
    What are Genital or Venereal Warts?
  13. Painful menstruation is extremely common and occurs a least occasionally in almost all women. Pain occurs in the abdominopelvic or back region of the body. The sensations are felt as cramps, occurring in succesive waves or as a constant cramp. The discomfort usually begins just before or at the start of menstual flow and may last from 1 day to entire period. In 10% of women, may be severe enough to cause episodes of partial or total diability.
    What is Dysmenorrhea?
  14. A gynecological condition characterized by painful cramping before and during menstruation. It is caused by the growth of the lining of the uterus outside the uterus. An important cause of infertility.
    What is Endometriosis?
  15. Disease consists of the presence of single or multiple cysts that are palpable in the breasts. Cysts can increase or decrease in size with the woman;s menstrual cycle. These benign cysts are fairly common yet must be observed carefully for any change in growth, which might lead to malignancy. Increased risk of breast cancer later in life.
    What is Fibrocystic Breast Disease
  16. An acute and chronic inflammatory disease of the genitals caused by type 2 herpes simplex virus. (HSV2). It is primarily transmitted by sexual contact. Infection causes painful vesicular eruptions on the skin and mucous membranes of the genitalia of men and women. A infected pregnant women can pass it to the fetus either through the placenta or by direct contact with infected tissues during birth.
    What is Genital Herpes
  17. A common STD is an acute inflammation of the urogenital tract mucosa and occasionally the pharynx, eyes and rectum. In men, characterized by urethritis, penile discharge and pain during urination. Women are the same, but may spead to the peritoneum.
    What is Gonorrhea?
  18. Inflammation of the mammary gland (breast) is usually caused by a streptococcal or staphylococcal infection. Acute is most common in the first 2 months of laction. Marked by local redness, pain, swelling and fever.
    What is Mastitis?
  19. Regarded as a life stage and not a disease, is the cessation of ovarian hormone function and menstration in the human female. Symptoms inlude dry skin, vaginal irritation and hot flashes.
    What is Menopause?
  20. Saclike structures filled with fluid or semi-solid material. Most are benign, but they can be painful
    What are Ovarian Cysts.
  21. Caused primarily by a bacterial infection, an inflammatory condition of the female pelvic organs. Fever, foul-smelling discharge, irregular vaginal bleeding, pain in lower abodomen and painful intercourse are all symptoms. A mass may be palpated in lower abdomen if abcesses are presant
    What is Pelvic Inflammatory Disease?
  22. A condition that causes nervous tension, irritability, weight gain, edema, headache, and lack of coordination a few days before the onset of menstration. Causes range from stress and emotional disturbance to hormonal imbalance and nutritional difiency.
    What is Premenstrual Symdrome (PMS)?
  23. Inflammation of the prostate is usually the result of an infection and may be chronic or acute. The client usually complains of frequency and urgency or urination and burning during urination.
    What is Prostatitis?
  24. A subacute to chronic infectious disease transmitted mainly by sexual intercourse. Can travel through the human placenta, producing congential syphilis in infants. Characterized by distinct stages of effects over a period of years. Any organ system may become involved, including the nervous system.
    What is Syphilis?
  25. An STD that produces a urogenital infection of a parasitic flagellated protozoon. A frothy, pale yellow-to-green odorous vaginal discharge with local itching and burning in women. If infection is chronic, then symptoms may disappear even though the parasite is still present. Men infected are usually asymptomatic, but may experience persistent or recurrent urethritis. If sexual partners are not treated simultaneously, then reinfection is common.
    What is Trichomoniasis?
  26. Also known as yeast infection, a vaginal infection caused by the fungus Candida albicans. A thick creamy vaginal discharge, local itching, and redness chracterize the condition.
    What is Vaginal Candidiasis?
Card Set
CH 22-23P Urinary & Reproductive System Pathologies
Pathologies of Urinary and Reproductive systems