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What does geology mean in Greek?
Earth (Geo) Discourse (Logos)
What are the two types of geology?
Physical and Historical
What is Catastrophism?
The belief that earth's landscapes were shaped primarily by great catastrophes
Who published "Theory of Earth" in 1795 and what was it about?
James Hutton about uniformitarianism
What is uniformitarianism?
The physical, chemical, and biological laws that operate today have also operated in the geological past. (the present is the key to the past)
When was radioactivity discovered and what did it do?
1896, and it helped to determine numerical dates for events in Earth's history
About how old is the earth today?
4.6 billion years
What is Relative Dating?
Events are placed in their proper order sequence without knowing their exact age in years
What is the Law of Superposition?
The youngest layer is on top and the oldest layer is on the bottom (Assuming nothing has turned the layers upside down)
What is the Principle of Fossil Succession?
Fossil organisms succeed one another in a definite and determinable order, and therefore any time period can be recognized by its fossil content
What is the overall goal of Science?
To discover the underlying patterns in nature and then use this knowledge to make predictions about whould can or cannot be expected in the future
What is the Scientific Method?
- 1. Collect Facts
- 2. Formulate Questions
- 3. Test the Hypothesis
- 4. Accept/Modify/Reject the Hypothesis
What is the idea of Continental Drift?
The continents moved about the face of the planet
What is the Hydrosphere?
The dynamic mass of water that is continually on the move, evaporating from the oceans to the atmosphere, precipitating to the land, and running back to the oceans
How much of Earth is covered by the ocean?
71% of Earth's Surface
What is the Biosphere?
All the life on Earth
What is the Geosphere?
The solid Earth beneath the atmosphere and oceans
What are Earth's 4 Spheres?
- 1. Atmosphere
- 2. Biosphere
- 3. Geosphere
- 4. Hydrosphere
What is the largest of Earth's 4 Spheres?
What is Earth System Science?
The study of earth as a system composed of numerous interacting parts
What are closed systems?
Systems that are self contained (like AC)
What is Negative Feedback Mechanism?
Work to maintain the system as it is
What is positive feedback mechanism?
Work to enhance or drive change in the system
What is an interface?
A common boundary where different parts of a system come in contact and interact
What are Earth's 2 Energy Sources?
- 1. The Sun (Exterior)
- 2. Earth's Interior
What is the Nebular Theory?
The bodies of our solar system evolved from an enormous roating cloud (the solar nebular)
What did the formation mark the end of?
The period of contraction and thus the end of gravitational heating
What are planetesimals?
Large asteroid-sized bodies that are the result of repeated collisions
What are meterorites?
The rocky and metallic pieces that remained in orbit after impact with the earth
What are the 3 main regions of the ocean floor?
- 1. The Continental Margins
- 2. Deep-Ocean Basins
- 3. Oceanic Ridges
What is the Circum-Pacific Belt?
The area around the pacific ocean.
Includes the mountains of the western americas and continues into the western pacific in the form of volcanic island arcs
What is the Hydrosphere made up of?
What is the Atmosphere made up of?
What is the Geosphere made up of?
What is the Biosphere made up of?
Plants and Animals
What are meteroites made up of?
- Iron-Nickel Alloy (iron)
- Silicate Minerals (Stones)
- Combination of Above (Stony-Iron)
What are the sections of the upper mantle?
- 1. Lithosphere
- 2. Asthenosphere
- 3. Transition Zone
What are the sections of the core?
- Outer Core (liquid)
- Inner Core (solid)
What are the sections of the crust?
- Continental Curst
- Oceanic Crust
What is the oceanic crust made up of?
What is the continental cust made up of?
Many different types of rocks
How deep is the deepest mine and where is it?
Western Deep Levels mine in South Africa, 2.5 miles deep
What are the two groups of features of the continents?
1. Extensive,Flat stable areas that have been eroded nearly to sea level
2. Uplifted regions of deformed rocks that make up present day mountain belts
What are the Continental Margins?
the portion of the seafloor adjacent to major landmasses.
Where are the deep ocean basins?
Between the coninental margins and the oceanic ridges
What are Igneous Rocks?
Rocks formed from magma that cools and solidifies
What are the three major groups of Rocks?
What minerals make up Granite?
- light colored silicate minerals
What are Metamorphic Rocks made up of?
They are produced from preexisting igneous, sedimentary, or other metamorphic rocks.
What are the different types of atoms?
- 1. Protons
- 2. Neutrons
- 3. Electrons
What defines the atomic number?
The number of protons?
How many protons does oxygen have?
What makes atoms happy? :)
Being full, half full, or empty
What is a cation?
What is a anion?
NA has 11P and 11e-
Chlorine has 17P and 17e-
1st and 2nd energy level of both are filled
3rd level: NA has 1e- and Cl has 7e-
(Cl needs 1, NA needs to get rid of 1)
They become ions
How many known minerals are there?
What are the important minerals that make up the earth? (8)
- 1. Silicon (Si)
- 2. Oxygen (O)
- 3. Aluminum (Al)
- 4. Iron (Fe)
- 5. Magnesium (Mg)
- 6. Calcium (Ca)
- 7. Sodium (Na)
- 8. Potassium (K)
What is most of the Earth made up of if you ignore the crust?
Si, O, Fe, Mg
What are Silicates
Cation + SiO#
What are Halides?
What are sulfides?
cation + S-
What are sulfates?
cation + SO4
What are carbonates?
cation + CO3-
What are Phosphates?
Cation + PO4 -
What are Native Elements?
What is Olivine made up of?
(Fe, Mg) SiO4
What is Biotite made up of?
Fe+ Mg Rich forms of Mica
What are the two main groups of silicates that crystallize from magma?
- Fe + Mg Rich
- Fe + Mg Poor
What are the 4 Main Fe + Mg Poor Minerals:
- 1. Quartz
- 2. Potassium Feldspar (Orthoclase)
- 3. Calcium Feldspar (Plagioclase)
- 4. Muscovite (K rich form of Mica)
What is Bowens Reaction Series? (Discontinuous Series)
- -Olivine (1200C)
- -Quartz (600 C)
What is MOH's scale of Mineral Hardness (soft to hard)
*The guys can flirt and other quaint things can do*
- 1. Talc
- 2. Gypsium
- 3. Calcite
- 4. Fluorite
- 5. Apatite
- 6. Orthoclase
- 7. Quartz
- 8. Topaz
- 9. Corundum
- 10. Diamond
What are some common hardness items?
- - Fingernails =2.5
- - Glass = 5.5
- - Copper Penny = 3
- - Steel File = 6-6.5
What is the Specific Gravity Formula?
Specific Gravity = (Weight in Air)/(Weight in Air - Weight in Water)
What is the Specific Gravity of Halite?
What is Porphyritic?
Rocks formed by slow cooling followed by rapid cooling?
What are some classifications of Felsic Igneous Rock?
- Felspar + Silica Rich
- Quartz, K-Feldspar, Plagioclase
What are Minerals?
any naturally occuring inorganic solid that possesses an orderly crystalline structure and a well-defined chemical composition
What is a Rock?
any solid mass of mineral, or mineral-like matter that occurs naturally as part of our planet
What is a covalent bond?
A chemical bond formed by the sharing of a pair of electrons between atoms
What is a Metallic Bond?
The Valence Electrons are free to move from one atom to another
What is the mass number of an atom?
The total number of protons an neutrons
What is Radioactive Decay?
Unstable isotopes radiates energy and emit particles
What is Crystallization?
Molecules and/or ions chemically bond to form an orderly internal structure
What is the Hardness of Diamond??
What is Olivine made up of?
(Mg, Fe)2 SiO4
What are 2 common members of the potassium felspar group?
Orthoclase and Microcline
What is in the Plagioclase Feldspar Group?
Sodium and Calcium ions
- - Made up of Silicon and Oxygen
- - Hard, resistant to weathering
- High Temp Silicate Minerals
- Small Rounded Crystals
- Constitue up to 50% of the Earth's upper mantle
- Iron Rich
- Common in Igneous Rocks
What Rock Types are Felsic?
What Rock types are Mafic?
What Rock types are Ultramafic
What are Rock Types are Intermediate (Between Felsic and Mafic)
What are the 3 factors that influence the texture of igneous rocks?
- 1. That rate at which molten rock cools
- 2. The amount of silica present
- 3. The amount of dissolved gases in the magma
What are the 6 different Types of Igneous Textures? (and describe)
- 1. Aphanitic - fine grained
- 2. Phaneritic - coarse grained
- 3. Porphyritic - large crystals embedded in small crystals
- 4. Glassy
- 5. Pyroclastic - rock fragments
- 6. Pegmatitic - large crystals
- Coarse-Medium Grain
- Made of Quartz, K- Feldspar, plagioclase
- Fine Grained
- Quartz, K-Feldspar, Plagioclase
- Coarse Grained
- Iron and Magnesium (pyroxene and olivine)
- Coarse Grained
- High in Iron, Magnesium, and Ca-rich feldspar
How are basalt and gabbro different?
Gabbro is intrusive, Basalt is extrusive
How are Rhyolite and Granite Different?
Granite is Intrusive, Rhyolite is Extrusive
- Di-Intrusive, An=Extrusive
- Fine Grained
- 1/2 Feldspar, 1/2 Biotite
- Over 90% olivine
- thought to make up the very top of the earth's mantle
- Mix of Olivine and Pyroxene
- Thought to make up almost ALL of the earth's mantle
Why is Olivine SO important?
Because it makes up so much of the mantle
What is the continental crust made up of?
Granite or Granodiorite
What is the Oceanic Crust made up of?
Generally Gabbro (Basalt)
What are the 7 Types of Physical Weathering?
- Frost Wedging
What are the 3 Types of Chemical Weathering?
Which melts first... Light or Dark colored minerals?
What is the Mantle made up of?
- Olivine and Pyroxene
- Iron and Magnesium
What are the 4 major types of igneous bodies?
- Largest Igneous Body
- Coarse, Medium, and Porphyritic rocks
- Highly Variable in Sizes and Shapes
- Largest Compilation of igneous bodies
- many of many smaller plutons
- coarse grained
What is the volcanic equivalent of gabbro?
- Varying Sizes
- Cemented Together
- Rapid Short Transportation (landslides)
- Similar to Breccia but rounded
- Form in stream beds, pebble beaches, etc
- Cemented together by silica or carbonate
- silt sized particles
- splits along bedded planes
- Composed of Calcite
- Fine Grained
- White to dark Grey
- Warm, shallow seas or reefs
- Breaks Conchoidally
- Many Differest Colors
- Quartz Like
- Calcium Sulfate
- Shallow ocean basin or lake
- Halite, Sylvite, Gypsum
- Form from evaporation of sea water
If sand were transported a long distance you would expect....
the sand to contain abundant quartz
Which of the following rocks has the lowest viscosity when in molten state?
E. Rhyolite (Greatest)
Andesite = intermediate
basaltic = least
(this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
What is the hardness of Apatite?
What is the volcanic quivalent of granite?
A Rock just begins to melt when...