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  1. Enzymes ____
    a. enhance reaction rates
    b. are affected by pH
    c. act on specific substrates
    d. All of the above
  2. The main energy carrier molecule in cells are
    ATP molecules
  3. If a biologist said that the human body might be getting its power from bacteris like cell organellas, he would be refering to,
    the mitochaondria in our cells that may have originated as endosymbiotic bacteria
  4. Which one of the following is a correct biochemical sequence in the Krebs cycle?
    A. Citrate--ocaloactate
    B. Ketoglutarate--isocitrate
    C. Fumarate--succinate
    D. Isocitrate--ketoglutarate
    D. Isocitrate--ketoglutarate
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  5. Which of the following junctions permit cytoplasmic interconnections between cells?
    a. gap junctions
    b. plasmodesmata
    c. adhering junctions
    • a. gap junctions
    • b. plasmodesmata
  6. A single-celled freshwater organism, such as a protistan, is transferred to saltwater. Which of the folowing is likely to happen?
    A. The cell burst
    B. Salt is pumped out of the cell
    C. The cell shrinks and plasmolysed
    D. Enzymes flow out of the cell
    C. The cell shrinks and plasmolysed
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  7. The method of movement that requires the expenditure of ATP molecules is
    Active transport
  8. The action of white blood cell engulfing a bacterium is
    • phagocytosis
    • endocytosis
  9. Enzymes
    • are very specific
    • act as catalysts
    • are organic molecules
    • have specifc shapes that control their activites
  10. 4 of the 5 answers listed below affect the rate of an ensymetic reaction. Select the except...
    A. concentration
    B. presence of hormones
    C. temperature
    D. heavy metals
    E. pH
    B. presence of hormones
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  11. Plants need which of the following to carry out photosynthesis?
    A. lipid
    B. H2O
    C. CO2
    D. O2
    e. a and b above
    C. CO2
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  12. Glycolysis
    a. occurs in the mitochondria
    b. happens to glucose only
    c. results in the production of pyrvate
    d. occurs in the cytoplasm
    e. c and d of the above
    • c. results in the production of pyrvate
    • d. occurs in the cytoplasm
    • e. c and d of the above
  13. In the breakdown of glucose, a phosophorylated sixcarbon compound is split into two three-carbon componds. The three carbon compound is called
    c. acetyl-CoA
  14. The Kreb cycle takes place in the
    d. mitochondria
  15. The oxygen released in photosynthesis comes from
    d. water
  16. Thylakoid disks are stacked in groups called
    a. Grana
  17. The light dependent reactions of photosynthesis
    a. involve photolysis of water
  18. The first stable compound produced from CO2 in the light dependent ractoin or Calvin cycle is
    a. Phosphoglycerate (PGA)
  19. Allosteric inhibitors interfere with the function of an enzyme by
    a. altering the shape of the enzyme
  20. Diffusion
    The random movement of molecules or ions from an area of high concerntration to an area of low concentration
  21. Osmosis
    The movement of water across any selectively permeable membrane in response to a concentration gradient
  22. Isotonic Solution
    • Equal concentration of ions in solution and cell
    • Water: neither lose nor gain
  23. Hypertonic Solution
    • Higher concentration of ions in solution that in cell
    • Ocean water: Draws watear out, cells lose water
  24. Hypotonic Solution
    • Lower concentration of ions in solution that in cells
    • Distilled Water: Draws water in, cells burst because too much water
  25. Plasmolysis
    Membrane loses water
  26. Turgor pressure
    The pressue of a plant cell's contents against its cell wall
  27. Passive Transport
    • Without the expenditure of energy.
    • Passive transport resluts in equal concentrations of a molecule on the 2 sides of membrane
  28. Active Transport
    • Moves molecules against a concentration gradient and requires energy.
    • Cells use the energy of ATP to move ions across the membrane
  29. Facilitated Diffusion
    • Depends on the action of molecules in the membrane that help or facilitate transport
    • Permease
  30. Phagocytosis
    Cells engulf relatively large particles
  31. Endocytosis
    Cell takes in tiny amounts of material in vesicles that arise by the inward folding of the plasma membrane
  32. Pinocytosis
    Cell takes up any bits of liquid and dissolved molecules
  33. Exosytosis
    Cell accumlates molecules to export in membrane-enclosed vesicles
  34. Plasmodesmata
    • Only in cells
    • Allows material to pass directly from cell to cell
  35. Gap Junction
    • Animal cells
    • Allows material to pass directly from cell to cell
  36. Adhering Junctions
    • Allow the passage of molecules while strengthening the connections between adjacent cells
    • Lose connection
  37. Tight Junctions
    • Fuse membranes of adjacent cells
    • Keep fluids from passing between them
  38. Cell to cell communication
    Plasmodesmata are tiny channels between plant cells through which flow thin streams of cytoplasm and sometimes thin strands of smooth ER
  39. Fireflies have enzyme luceferase and ATP turns it into luceferia
    Then photon turns to light
  40. Exothermic (exergonic)
    All processes that release energy
  41. Endothermic (endergonic)
    All processes that require an input of energy
  42. Enzymes
    • Speed up chemical reactions
  43. Things that affect enzymes
    • Temperature
    • pH
    • Salt Concentration
  44. Anabolism
    • Two coming together to make one
    • Energy taken in
  45. Catabolism
    • One breaking into two
    • Energy is released
  46. In our saliva there is the __________ enzyme
    sal. amylase
  47. Inhibitors
    Molecule that changes the activity of enzymes-either increasing or decreasing
  48. Steric Inhibitor
    • A molecule that binds to an enzyme's active site, preventing substrate from binding
    • Competes with substrate for active site
    • Replaces substrate at the active site
  49. Allosteric Inhibitor
    • Does not compete with the substrate but binds to another site on the enzyme in such a way that the active site on the enzyme in such a way that the active site no longer functions
    • Changes the shape of the enzyme's active site
  50. Autotrophs
    • Organisms that make their own food or obtain energy and synthesize organic molecules from inorganic material
    • Provide energy
  51. Hetertrophs
    • Obtain chemical energy from other organisms
    • Can't make own energy
  52. Metabolism
    Complex network of biochemical conversions that are collectively
  53. Cellular respiration
    • oxygen-dependant process by which cells extract energy from food molecules
    • Plants use CR for ATP
    • All cells use ATP
  54. GLYCOLYSIS happens in the absence of oxygen
  55. Only place oxygen is used is in the _______
  56. 1st step _____enters the cell
  57. Citric Acid Cycle
    Krebs Cycle
    Combine with oxygen
  58. 1 Glucose = ____ ATP
  59. Glucose -(ATP)-Glucose6phosphate (ADP)
    Glucose6phosphate -- fructose6phosphate
  60. Fructose6phosphate-(ATP)-Fructose1, 6biphosphate (ADP)
    Fructose1, 6biphosphate--PGAL x2
  61. Glucose _________ Glucose phosphate
  62. Glucose phosphate ________ Fructose phosphate
  63. Fructose phosphate______Fructose diphosphate
  64. Fructose diphosphate ______Phosphogluceraldehyde
  65. Phosphogluceraldehyde________Diphosphogluceric Acid
    • Diphosphoglyceratekinase
    • 2NAD--2NAD H2
  66. Diphosphogluceric Acid _______Phosphoglceric Acid
  67. Phosphoglyceric Acid _______Phosphoenolpyruvic Acid
  68. Phosphoenolpyruvic Acid________Pyruvic Acid
  69. Pyruvic Acid______2 lactic acid (animals), 2 ethyl alcohol (plants) +2CO2
    After: Coenzyme A--CO2
  70. Acetyl Coenzyme A _______Citric Acid
    Citric synthase
  71. Citric acid _______Isocrtric acid
  72. Isocitric acid ______ alpha ketoglutaric acid
    Isocitrate dehydrogenase
  73. alpha ketoglutaric acid_______succiric acid
    alpha ketoglutaric acid dehydrogenase
  74. Succiric acid ____fumaric acid
    Succinic acid dehdrogenase
  75. Fumaric acid _______ Malic acid
  76. Malic acid __________ oxloacetic acid
    Malic acid dehydrogenase
  77. Oxaloacetic acid + Acetyl Coenzyme A
  78. Photosynthesis is the most important _____ on the earth
    Chemical reaction
  79. Photosynthesis
    • 1. Light Reactions/Photolysis
    • 2. CO2 Fixation/Dark Reaction/Calvin Cycle
  80. Photophosophorylation
    • CO2 + H2O -----ATP
    • light, chlorophyll, cytochrome, ADP

    • ADP----ATP
    • chlorophyll, cytochrome
  81. Light Reactions/Photolysis
    H2O -------- NaDPH + O

    chlophyll, light
  82. CO2 Fixation/Dark Room/ Calvin Cycle
    • a.) 3 CO2 + 3H2 ---------- Phosphoglycesic Acid (PGA)
    • b.) 3 PGA + NADPH --------- PGAL Phosphglyceralochyde
    • c.) PGAL ----------G Eucose, Polysch (starch)
    • Polymerigotin
    Ribulose Bisphosphate
  84. Joseph Priestley
    • Mouse experiment
    • Showed plant could keep mouse alive
  85. Antoine Lavoisier
    French chemist independently discovered oxygen
  86. Photosynthesis
    • Plants using oxygen to break sugars into CO2 and water
    • Plants use photosynthesis with solar energy to make sugar from carbon dioxide and water
  87. The oxygen released by plants comes from water, not from carbon dioxide
  88. Photosynthesis in plants
    Sulfur is released
  89. 400 nm light as violet, 500nm light as blue-green and 600nm light as orange-red
    400 nm to 700 nm-------visable light
  90. 400 to 500 the most seen
    • chlorophyll a
    • chlorophyll b
    • b carotene
  91. Plants dont use light from ____
    500 to 630
  92. Stroma
    Space outside of Thlakoid
  93. Rubisco
    The enzyme that catalyzes this reaction is ribulose bisphosphate carboxylase
  94. 4-carbon compound called ________OAA
    • oxaloacetate
    • desert plants = closed during the day and open at night
  95. CAM
    • A pathway that conserves even more water
    • CAM plants open their stromata to collect CO2 at night only, when the air is cool and water loss in minimal
  96. The Calvin Cycle turns ______ into sugar
    Carobon Dioxide
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