1. Santiago Ramon y Cjal (1852-1934)
    • Spanish anatomical researcher and illustrator
    • Won nobel prize with Golgi in 1906 in medicine for their work on the structure of the nervous system
  2. Sir Charles Sherrington (1857-1952)
    • Awarded nobel prize for the synapse and neuron
    • Reflexes
  3. Automatic Muscular Responses to Stimuli
    • Can be modified by signals from the brain (don't require the brain)
    • Signals were actually more consistent when spinal cord is disconnected from the brain
  4. Somatic Reflex Arc
    • The circuit from sensory neuron to muscule response
    • Bottom of dogs foot -> Dorsal root ganglion -> out central spinal cord = Lift of the foot

    Sherrington measured the time measured for dogs to withdraw their leg from the pinch. They don't quite touch each other so he decided there must be a delay in synapses
  5. Summation
    • Synaptic inputs from separate locations combine their effects on a neuron
    • Light pinch = no response
    • Repeated light pinches = response
  6. Inhibitory Postsynaptic Potential (IPSP)
    Occurs when a synaptic input selectively opens the gates for potassium ions to leave the cell (carrying a (+) charge)
  7. Otto Loewi (1873-1961)
    Idea that famous experiment came to him in his sleep. Won nobel prize.. Decrease/increase frog's heart rate
  8. Typical Sequence of Events at Synapse
    • 1) Synthesis
    • 2) Transport terminal buttons
    • 3) Storage into synapse
    • 4) Bind to autoreceptors
    • 5) Separate from receptors
    • 6) Reuptake or breakdown by enzymes (Ach)
    • 7) Activation of receptors
  9. Ionotropic Effects
    Neurotransmitters bind to receptors in themebrane of the postsynaptic cell, immediately opening ion channels
  10. Metabolic
    Open several channels slower but is longer lasting
  11. Neurotransmitters
    • Amino Acids: Glutamate, GABA, Acetylcholine, Asparate, Glycine
    • Monoamines: Serotonin, dopamine, epinephrine, noepenephrine
    • Purines
    • Gases
  12. Dopamine
    • Movement
    • Nigrostriatal pathway and reward (mesolimbic: wanting v liking)
  13. Acetylcholine
    • Movement
    • REM sleep
    • Learning and attention
    • Deficient in Alzheimers patients
  14. Serotonin
    • Mood
    • Hunger
    • Dreams
    • Antidepressants
  15. GABA
    • Primary inhibitory neurotransmitter
    • IPSPS are likely to be abnormal or deficient in epileptics
  16. Glumate
    primary excitatory neurotransmitter, EPSPs, mild pain and formation of memories
  17. Endorphins (Opoids)
    • Relive pain by decreasing the pain
    • Neurotransmitter "liking v wanting' something
  18. Exocytosis
    Release of neurotransmitter in bursts from the prestnaptic neuron from the postsynaptic neuron
  19. Hormone
    Chemical that is secreted in most cases by a gland but also by other kinds of cells and conveyed by the blood to other organs, whose activity it influences
  20. Wanting v. Liking
    • Dopamine release in the NA seems to affect wanting, not liking
    • TR - taste reactivity - findings
    • Liking may be influences more by opiods than by dopamine
  21. Antagonist
    Drug that blocks the effects of a neurotransmitter
  22. Agonist
    Drug that mimics or increases the effects
  23. Affinity
    A drug has an affinity for a receptor if it binds to it like a key in a lock
  24. Efficacy
    Tendency to activate the receptor.
  25. Stimulant drugs
    increase excitement, alertness, activity while elevating ,ppd and decreacing fatigue
  26. Adenosine
    Makes you sleepy - coffee BLOCKS them

    Ex: Nicotine, Morphine, LSD, THC
  27. Cocaine/Ritalin
    Both work by blocking the reuptake of dopamine
  28. Amphetamine/Adderall
    Works by reversing the reuptake of dopamine
  29. Alcohol
    Is a deppresant by hyperpolarization of ions. It's a GABA agonist thatworks by helping GABA open its ion channel I
  30. Opioids
    Inhibit GABA releasing neurons that inhibit the release of dopamine into the nucleus accumbens

    Ex: heroine, morphine
  31. Non-Drug stimuli
    Food, surprising rewards like gambling
Card Set
Chapter 3: Section 1, 2, 3