1. In the ancient world, people believed that babies born with disabilities was "divine punishment". What was their general treatment?
    infanticide of such children was common.
  2. Prior to 1905, definitions of intellectual disabilities involved ______ and _______ incompetence.
    social and job
  3. movement of service delivery from large facilities to community-based settings. [ Psychologist's services became more community based as a result ]
  4. human service philosophy that stresses providing
    services to people with ID in a similar fashion to those people w/o ID receives services.
  5. human service philosophy that places greater
    emphasis on social acceptance, personal integration, and productivity for people with ID.
    Social Role Valorization
  6. The current scientific way to define an intellectual disability is with 3 categories:
    • significant limitations in intellectual functioning
    • significant limitations in adaptive functioning
    • onset before 22 years of age
  7. ________ is not necessary for initial classification but can be useful in prognosis (probable course and outcome of the disease) and treatment selection.
    Etiology (cause)
  8. Classification by ______ supports prevention planning, understanding pathogenesis (origination and development of a disease), and providing info to families and service provider.
    Etiology (cause)
  9. 55-70 IQ; 2+ domains of adaptive functioning
    Mild ID
  10. 35-54 IQ; 2+ domains of adaptive functioning
    Moderate ID
  11. 20-34 IQ; All domains of adaptive functioning
    Severe ID
  12. Less than 20 IQ; All domains of adaptive functioning
    Profound ID
  13. id after school entry, job and adult responsibilities fulfilled, uncommon to need adult services.
    Mild ID
  14. id during preschool, work with supervision/assistance, supervised adult residency.
    Moderate ID
  15. id during infancy, significant developmental delays, may include biological anomalies, not typically employed, significant living assistance.
    Severe ID
  16. id as infants, higher early mortality rate, no functional job, social, or community skills, assistance with all aspects of daily life.
    Profound ID
  17. ______ _______ uses a valid, comprehensive and individual measure of intelligence that is administered in a standardized format and interpreted by a qualified professional
    Intelligence testing
  18. IQ can be an effective predictor of adult cognitive functioning but less predictive of what?
    Adaptive behavior gains
  19. _________ differences can cause disadvantages in testing and over-diagnoses in minorities.
  20. Applying criteria that includes both _____ and _____ measures is an effective strategy against misdiagnosis.
    IQ and adaptive
  21. This is defined as the performance of the individual as
    an end product at any point of person-environment interaction.
    Adaptive behavior
  22. independence in living, abiding by community standards of behavior, coping with social demands, skill transfer to new situations, and financial self-sufficiency.
    These all are examples of what?
    Adaptive behavior

    Significant others of the person assessed can provide more accurate info on adaptive levels than direct observation
  24. The greater the degree of severity, the greater prevalence of maladaptive behavior except regarding ______ ID.
  25. Which two levels of ID are more likely to be caused by biological causes?
    Severe and profound ID
  26. The Education of All Handicapped Children Act (1975) mandated least restrictive
    environments and___________________.
    Free Appropriate Public Education (FAPE)
  27. ___________ Act(1997) extended the previous law adding accountability and improvement of results, access to regular education, made parents part of the education team, and addressed the misdiagnosis of minorities.
    Idividuals with Disabilites Education (Act)
  28. A(n) _________ ________ ______is required to receive special education services and be protected under the rights of the law.
    Individualized Education Plan (IEP)
  29. A formal __________ (usually by the local education agency or LEA) is required to determine if a student qualifies for services.
  30. ______ was amended in 2004 (in response to No-Child-Left-Behind). Changes included the need for educational methods to be based on replicable research.
    IDEA ----Individuals with Disabilities Education Act
  31. enforcing people’s right to effective treatment, providing info in a timely fashion without using jargon, avoiding dual and exploitative relationships, informing clients’ of their rights, maintaining confidentiality, and using scientifically-validated treatments.

    These all are examples of what?
    Ethical conduct
  32. ________ are means by which parents and educators can settle
    Mediation/ due process hearings
  33. ________ are stimuli in the immediate environment that influence behavior. (________-> Behavior -> Consequence; repeat) What is an example?
    • Antecedents;
    • (Example goes here? sorry)
  34. _____ is any movement of an organism and its parts.
  35. ___________ __________ are composed of antecedents, behavior, and consequences.
    Behavior contingencies
  36. _____________ are events following a behavior that increases (reinforcement) or decreases (punishment) the probability of the reoccurrence of the behavior.
  37. The designation _____ means adding something to the environment while ______ means removing something from the environment. These designations are used both in types of reinforcement and punishment.
    • positive;
    • negative
  38. Food, water, and sleep
    Primary Reinforcers
  39. attention, items, and sensory stimulation
    Secondary Reinforcers
  40. The purposes of assessment are to determine the environmental conditions that affect and what contingencies maintain a behavior, establish a precise
    definition of the behavior, and develop a hypothesis for treatment.
    • Determine environment
    • Define behavior
    • Develop hypothesis
  41. At what point in the assessment should you review medical and physiological conditions?
    first thing!
  42. The ___________ refers to collecting data on a behavior prior to intervention. This data allows
    determination of treatment effect.
  43. Functions of _________ include attention, escape, access to items/activities, and physiological causes
  44. __________ assessments determine setting events and antecedents, While ____________ assessments determine the consequences of maintaining a behavior.
    • Ecological;
    • Functional
  45. •Interviews
    (history, rating scales)

    •Role playing

    •Self-report (check
    lists and monitoring)
    These are examples of __________ Procedures
    Indirect [difficulties: poorly trained observer, difficult recording procedure]
  46. Experimental Functional Analysis
    Systematic manipulation of specific factors that are associated with the behavior

    examples of a ________________ procedure
    Direct [Difficulties: limited in making conections. labor intensive. trained supervisors. graphical data and analysis]
  47. _____________ ______ __________ is the systematic manipulation of specific factors associated
    with the target behavior. 2 types: analogue and “in vivo”(in the environment)
    Experimental Functional Analysis
  48. ___________ definitions of behavior should accurately and reliably define the typography
    (form) of the behavior.
  49. Assessment measures may record frequency, duration, intensity, latency, quality, and _____ ______. _____ ____ refers to the condition under which a specific behavior will occur.
    Stimulus Control
  50. vague definitions, poor observation

    environments, poorly trained observers, or poorly designed data sheets
    Are examples of what?
    Errors in data collection
  51. ________ _________ are cues in the environment that reinforcement is available for
    a behavior
    • Discriminative stimuli
    • (SD) or S^D or S to the D power?
  52. _________are cues added to SD (discriminative stimuli) to support the delivery of a specific response.
  53. verbal, gestural, physical, modeled, stimulus fading, and time delay.
    These are examples of ??
  54. ___ should initially
    be used as much as possible to ensure correct acquisition of a behavior and to
    reduce errors. _______ should be faded as quickly as possible once a skill is
  55. ___ refers to changing the amount of prompting being used.
  56. _______intrusiveness refers to the degree to which a_________ is artificial to the typical cues in the
    natural environment.
  57. Environmental changes alone will not support long-lasting change unless paired with changes to
  58. Reinforcement should be delivered approximately _____ seconds after the occurrence of a target behavior.
    2 seconds
  59. _______ assessments should be conducted to determine individualized ________.
    • Reinforcer;
    • Reinforcers
  60. offer choices, vary availability, use small portions, and create variety to...... what?
    avoid reinforcer satiation
  61. TRUE / FALSE
    You should pair primary reinforcers with secondary reinforcers.
  62. Provide _______ reinforcement when teaching a new
    skill. Switch to ___________reinforcement to maintain the skill once learned.
    • continuous;
    • intermittent
  63. Changing the rate of reinforcement is known as _________. The goal of __________ should be to
    establish types and rates of reinforcement indicative of the natural environment.
  64. ______ ________ refers to providing reinforcement based on the occurrence of an
    appropriate behavior or the absence of a problem behavior.
    Differential Reinforcement
  65. True / False
    Always reinforce an alternate, appropriate replacement when a behavior is being reduced.
  66. the discontinuation of reinforcement for a
  67. aggression, spontaneous recovery, and extinction
  68. ____________ includes restitution and positive practice.
  69. the behavior isn’t responding to differential reinforcement, the behavior is dangerous to person
    and/or significant others, and the behavior restricts quality of life.

    These are reasons for using what?
  70. removal or withdrawal of reinforcement for a
    specific period of time contingent on a behavior occurrence. 2 types:
    exclusionary and non-exclusionary
  71. Considerations when
    using ___________: it should be part of a comprehensive treatment strategy that
    included increasing skills and reinforcing appropriate behavior, follows the least restrictive treatment model, has social acceptability, assessment and
    supervision of treatment is ongoing, and generalization and maintenance are part of programming.
  72. Deliver reinforcement after a period of time when the target behavior is absent
    Differential Reinforcement of Other behavior (DRO)
  73. Reinforce specific appropriate behaviors, which are incompatible with the targeted inappropriate
    Differential Reinforcement of Incompatible behavior (DRI)
  74. Reinforcement of a specific behavior other than the targeted inappropriate behavior
    Differential Reinforcement of Alternate behavior (DRA)
  75. Reinforcing an alternative behavior that serves the same function as the inappropriate behavior
    Differential Reinforcement of Functional Equivalents (DRFE)
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