In the ancient world, people believed that babies born with disabilities was "divine punishment". What was their general treatment?
infanticide of such children was common.
Prior to 1905, definitions of intellectual disabilities involved ______ and _______ incompetence.
social and job
movement of service delivery from large facilities to community-based settings. [ Psychologist's services became more community based as a result ]
human service philosophy that stresses providing
services to people with ID in a similar fashion to those people w/o ID receives services.
human service philosophy that places greater
emphasis on social acceptance, personal integration, and productivity for people with ID.
Social Role Valorization
The current scientific way to define an intellectual disability is with 3 categories:
significant limitations in intellectual functioning
significant limitations in adaptive functioningonset before 22 years of age
________ is not necessary for initial classification but can be useful in prognosis (probable course and outcome of the disease) and treatment selection.
Classification by ______ supports prevention planning, understanding pathogenesis (origination and development of a disease), and providing info to families and service provider.
55-70 IQ; 2+ domains of adaptive functioning
35-54 IQ; 2+ domains of adaptive functioning
20-34 IQ; All domains of adaptive functioning
Less than 20 IQ; All domains of adaptive functioning
id after school entry, job and adult responsibilities fulfilled, uncommon to need adult services.
id during preschool, work with supervision/assistance, supervised adult residency.
id during infancy, significant developmental delays, may include biological anomalies, not typically employed, significant living assistance.
id as infants, higher early mortality rate, no functional job, social, or community skills, assistance with all aspects of daily life.
______ _______ uses a valid, comprehensive and individual measure of intelligence that is administered in a standardized format and interpreted by a qualified professional
IQ can be an effective predictor of adult cognitive functioning but less predictive of what?
Adaptive behavior gains
_________ differences can cause disadvantages in testing and over-diagnoses in minorities.
Applying criteria that includes both _____ and _____ measures is an effective strategy against misdiagnosis.
IQ and adaptive
This is defined as the performance of the individual as
an end product at any point of person-environment interaction.
independence in living, abiding by community standards of behavior, coping with social demands, skill transfer to new situations, and financial self-sufficiency. These all are examples of what?
Significant others of the person assessed can provide more accurate info on adaptive levels than direct observation
The greater the degree of severity, the greater prevalence of maladaptive behavior except regarding ______ ID.
Which two levels of ID are more likely to be caused by biological causes?
Severe and profound ID
The Education of All Handicapped Children Act (1975) mandated least restrictive
Free Appropriate Public Education (FAPE)
___________ Act(1997) extended the previous law adding accountability and improvement of results, access to regular education, made parents part of the education team, and addressed the misdiagnosis of minorities.
Idividuals with Disabilites Education (Act)
A(n) _________ ________ ______is required to receive special education services and be protected under the rights of the law.
Individualized Education Plan (IEP)
A formal __________ (usually by the local education agency or LEA) is required to determine if a student qualifies for services.
______ was amended in 2004 (in response to No-Child-Left-Behind). Changes included the need for educational methods to be based on replicable research.
IDEA ----Individuals with Disabilities Education Act
enforcing people’s right to effective treatment, providing info in a timely fashion without using jargon, avoiding dual and exploitative relationships, informing clients’ of their rights, maintaining confidentiality, and using scientifically-validated treatments.
These all are examples of what?
________ are means by which parents and educators can settle
Mediation/ due process hearings
________ are stimuli in the immediate environment that influence behavior. (________-> Behavior -> Consequence; repeat) What is an example?
(Example goes here? sorry)
_____ is any movement of an organism and its parts.
___________ __________ are composed of antecedents, behavior, and consequences.
_____________ are events following a behavior that increases (reinforcement) or decreases (punishment) the probability of the reoccurrence of the behavior.
The designation _____ means adding something to the environment while ______ means removing something from the environment. These designations are used both in types of reinforcement and punishment.
Food, water, and sleep
attention, items, and sensory stimulation
The purposes of assessment are to determine the environmental conditions that affect and what contingencies maintain a behavior, establish a precise
definition of the behavior, and develop a hypothesis for treatment.
At what point in the assessment should you review medical and physiological conditions?
The ___________ refers to collecting data on a behavior prior to intervention. This data allows
determination of treatment effect.
Functions of _________ include attention, escape, access to items/activities, and physiological causes
__________ assessments determine setting events and antecedents, While ____________ assessments determine the consequences of maintaining a behavior.
Experimental Functional Analysis
Systematic manipulation of specific factors that are associated with the behavior
examples of a ________________ procedure
Direct [Difficulties: limited in making conections. labor intensive. trained supervisors. graphical data and analysis]
_____________ ______ __________ is the systematic manipulation of specific factors associated
with the target behavior. 2 types: analogue and “in vivo”(in the environment)
Experimental Functional Analysis
___________ definitions of behavior should accurately and reliably define the typography
(form) of the behavior.
Assessment measures may record frequency, duration, intensity, latency, quality, and _____ ______. _____ ____ refers to the condition under which a specific behavior will occur.
vague definitions, poor observation
environments, poorly trained observers, or poorly designed data sheets Are examples of what?
Errors in data collection
________ _________ are cues in the environment that reinforcement is available for
(SD) or S^D or S to the D power?
_________are cues added to SD (discriminative stimuli) to support the delivery of a specific response.
verbal, gestural, physical, modeled, stimulus fading, and time delay.
These are examples of ??
___ should initially
be used as much as possible to ensure correct acquisition of a behavior and to
reduce errors. _______ should be faded as quickly as possible once a skill is
___ refers to changing the amount of prompting being used.
_______intrusiveness refers to the degree to which a_________ is artificial to the typical cues in the
Environmental changes alone will not support long-lasting change unless paired with changes to
Reinforcement should be delivered approximately _____ seconds after the occurrence of a target behavior.
_______ assessments should be conducted to determine individualized ________.
offer choices, vary availability, use small portions, and create variety to...... what?
avoid reinforcer satiation
TRUE / FALSE
You should pair primary reinforcers with secondary reinforcers.
Provide _______ reinforcement when teaching a new
skill. Switch to ___________reinforcement to maintain the skill once learned.
Changing the rate of reinforcement is known as _________. The goal of __________ should be to
establish types and rates of reinforcement indicative of the natural environment.
______ ________ refers to providing reinforcement based on the occurrence of an
appropriate behavior or the absence of a problem behavior.
True / False
Always reinforce an alternate, appropriate replacement when a behavior is being reduced.
the discontinuation of reinforcement for a
aggression, spontaneous recovery, and extinction
bursts THESE ARE EXAMPLE SIDE EFFECTS OF WHAT?
____________ includes restitution and positive practice.
the behavior isn’t responding to differential reinforcement, the behavior is dangerous to person
and/or significant others, and the behavior restricts quality of life.
These are reasons for using what?
removal or withdrawal of reinforcement for a
specific period of time contingent on a behavior occurrence. 2 types:
exclusionary and non-exclusionary
using ___________: it should be part of a comprehensive treatment strategy that
included increasing skills and reinforcing appropriate behavior, follows the least restrictive treatment model, has social acceptability, assessment and
supervision of treatment is ongoing, and generalization and maintenance are part of programming.
Deliver reinforcement after a period of time when the target behavior is absent
Differential Reinforcement of Other behavior (DRO)
Reinforce specific appropriate behaviors, which are incompatible with the targeted inappropriate
Differential Reinforcement of Incompatible behavior (DRI)
Reinforcement of a specific behavior other than the targeted inappropriate behavior
Differential Reinforcement of Alternate behavior (DRA)
Reinforcing an alternative behavior that serves the same function as the inappropriate behavior
Differential Reinforcement of Functional Equivalents (DRFE)