Emotion regulation and coping

  1. emotion regulation
    strategies used to elicit, maintain, increase, or decrease emotions consciously and non-consciously
  2. process model of emotion regulation
    • 1. situation selection: we have choices of situations we put ourselves thru
    • 2. situation modification: ways to prevent emotions thru changing subtle things
    • 3. attention aspects: control the attentional aspects, choose what you attend to
    • 4. cognitive reappraisal: change in interpretation of the event, try to neutralize stimulus by changing label of situations, a good way to decrease emotion
    • 5. emotion –> feelings, behavior, and psychological response
  3. What makes up the antecedent focus?
    • situation selection
    • situation modification
    • attention aspects
    • cognitive reappraisals
  4. What makes up the response focus?
    • emotion
    • feelings, behavior, and physiological response
  5. Emotion Regulations – Gross Studies
    • watch movies (disgust, sad)
    • IV: reappraise (r) – adopt a detached and unemotional perspective, suppress (s) – while watching behave in a way that no one could tell, control
    • DV: facial expressions, self-report, physiological changes
  6. Results for Negative emotion to Gross Studies
    • Facial Exp: Control > supp + reappr.
    • S-R: Supp = control > Reappr.
    • BP: Supp > Control > Reappr
    • Suppression does NOT make negative emotion go away
    • reapp. seems to help in decreasing emotion
    • when supp. hide emotion BP increases
    • Supp. fell just as much emotion as those in the control group
  7. Results for Positive emotion to Gross Studies
    • Suppression –> decreases S-R
    • takes away some joy/pleasure
  8. Coping w/ Stress – Pennebaker (1993)
    • IV: Topic: write about a personal experience OR neural topic
    • DV: Health measures
    • Task: write 15-20 min for 3-5 days
  9. Results to Pennebaker Exp.
    • Experimental group experienced
    • less health visits
    • increase in immune fxning lasting days after writing
    • decrease absent from work
    • increase liver fxning
    • NOT changing health behvaiors (ex. not less smoking)
  10. High improvement vs. Low Improvement in Pennebaker exp.
    • Hi improvement used words of insight and causation, which increased across sesstions (ex. realize, because, word that demonstrate insight)
    • decrease # of unique words over time
  11. cope
    process of managing external or internal that are appraised as impacting
  12. Human and Stress Study – Camm et al.
    • Stressor: Movie "Alive"
    • IV: 2nd film (humor, nature, no film)
    • DV: change in S-R (anxiety + happiness)
  13. Results of Camm et al. – for positive emotion
    Humor > Nature = No film
  14. Results of Camm et al. – for anxiety
    No film > humor = nature
  15. Summary of Camm et al.
    • distraction decreases sadness
    • humor increase happiness
  16. Other finding in Camm et al.
    • Humor decrease anticipatory anxiety (ex. shock)
    • changes in discomfort threshold (reduces pain); better than just distraction
  17. Changing Happiness Levels (Seligman et al.)
    • IV: one week
    • control (early memories)
    • gratitude visit (construct letter)
    • 3 good things in life (each day, write 3 things that went well and what caused it)
    • you at your best (1 story and write about it and review its strengths)
    • using signature strengths in new ways (list top 5 and use strengths in new ways for a week)
    • identifying signature strengths (applying it and new different way everyday)
    • DV: change in happiness (pleasant, engaged, and meaningful life)
  18. Results to Seligman et al. exp
    • increase in happiness
    • gratitude: up to 1 month
    • 3 good things in life (after 6 months they were still showing higher happiness levels)
    • using signature strengths in new ways (also 6 months)
  19. Types of social support
    Problem solving and emotion focused
  20. Problem solving efforts
    • constructive attempts
    • concrete advising, problem focused approach
  21. Emotion focused coping
    • regulate emotion
    • comfort, empathy, validation
  22. Matching hypothesis
    • choosing one that you feel like
    • ex. dont want to hear how to solve problem call a friend that will just listen
  23. Exercise and stress
    • may serve as a buffer against stress and negative affect
    • helps recover from negative experience
Card Set
Emotion regulation and coping
Psyc 153 Final