Biology 1-5

  1. Homeostasis
    Steady state of body function. Interplay between outside forces that tend to change an organisms internal control.
  2. Cell Theory
    All living things are composed of cells.
  3. DNA
    Contains info for reprodution and develpment.
  4. Difference between Hypothesis Science and Discovery Based Sci.
    • Disovery-
    • Desctriptive, make and record observations.
    • No Experiments

    • Hypothesis-
    • MAke observations
    • Ask Q
    • Form hypothesis
    • Experiment
    • Conclusion.
  5. Experimental Variable
    Something that can chnage in an experiment.
  6. Experimental Group
    Group you are testing hypothesis on.
  7. Controlled Group
    Group that does not receive your treatment.
  8. Controlled Variables
    Things you keep the same between both groups
  9. Retrospctive
    What happens in the past
  10. Prospective
    Test both groups and follow them.
  11. Random Fluctuation
    • Data that could be explaines by chnage.
    • need large sample size.
  12. Experimental Bias
    Not letting scientist know what they are testing for.
  13. Natural Selection
    • happens natural.
    • How evolution works.
    • How "fit" an organism is with his environment determines what traits will be passed on w/ greater traits.
  14. Artificial selection
    Human modified of animals or plants.
  15. Atomic Number =
    Number of protoons
  16. Atomic Mass =
    # of protons + # of neutrons
  17. Isotope
    Different forms of element that have the same # of protoons but different # of neutrons.
  18. Ion
    Charged aton or molecule.
  19. Valence shell
    • Outtermost electron shell.
    • Largely determines the properties of one element .
    • Elements w/ same # of valence electrons are in the same column on periodic table.
  20. Ionic Bonds
    Transfer of electrons between elements/ compounds or slats.
  21. Covalent Bonds
    Sharing of electrons between elements, strongest bond.
  22. Non Polar (COVALENT)
    Atoms share electrons equally.
  23. Polar (Covalent)
    Have opposite carges on opposite ends.
  24. Importance of electronegativity
    The power to attract electrong, oxyben is very electronegaive atom.
  25. Hydrogen Bonds
    • occurs betwee polar molecules (Like water)
    • Incicated by dotter lines in stead of solid lines.
    • Weakes t of 3 types of bonds.
  26. Hydropholic interactions
    • Water hating.
    • Does not dissolve in water.
    • Often lipids and fats.
    • Forms separate layer.
  27. Solvent
    Dissolving solution
  28. Solute
    Substance being dissolved
  29. Solution
    Misture of two or more substances.
  30. Hyfropholic
    Water loving
  31. Hydrophobic
    Wter hating.
  32. What does pH scale measure
    Power of hydrogen
  33. What are pH acids
    Donate H+ ions into solutions
  34. What are pH Bases
    Remove H+ from solutions
  35. What do buffers do
    • Minimize changes in pH when acids or bases ar added to solution.
    • Acts as both a weak acid or weak base.
  36. Carbs % for good diet
  37. Fat % for good diet
  38. Protein % for good diet
  39. Imprtance of Carbs for diet
    Important for physical avtivity
  40. Polymers made of ???
  41. Made from smaller monomers
  42. Importance of fats to our diet
    • Need fats for cell membranes & nervous system function.
    • Cholesterol used to make all sterois hormones.
    • Serve as insulation to coserve body heat and provide cushion to vital organs.
    • Fat soiluble vitamins (A,K,E) rely on fat for transport and storage.
  43. Saturated Fat
    Carbons are saturated (Filled ) w/ hydrogens
  44. Unsaturated Fats
    Less Hydrogen; replaces with carbon , double bonds.
  45. what Are steroids
    Common structure composed of four-ring carbon units. Examples: Cholesterol.
  46. In conditions of Hypothermia
    Sweating will occur
  47. Mitochondria are membrane-bound organelles in cytoplasm in which:
    Energy rich molecules are broken down, using Oxygen, to provide energy for cell activities.
  48. glucose has a higher concentration outside of a muscle cll compared to inside. This process by which glucose will enter is
    Facilitated Diffusion
  49. A hydrogen bond
    • Can involve two diff. polar molecules.
    • Is weker than a covalent bond.
    • Can involve water molecules
    • can occur between molecules.
  50. Panceatic produce a large amount of insulin (A protein). these cells would be expected to contain a large amound of ________ compared to other cells.
    Rough endoplasmic reticulum.
  51. Nonpolar molecules such as lipics are good examples of
    hydrophibic Molecules.
  52. Hydrolosis is a process in which a molecule.
    Is broken into two molecules by additon of water molecule across a bond.
  53. The molecule CH2OH
  54. In regard to lipids, the term unsaturated refers to
    The presence of double bonds between adjacent carbon atoms in a fatty acid.
  55. Each amino acid differs from others in the
    chemical structure of the R group.
  56. An decrease of cholesterol within a cell membrane will.
    Increase the fluidity of the membrane.
  57. Element listed below which is NOT among the four most frequently found elements in living matter:
  58. Potassium has one electron in tis outtermost shell. Therefore, to complete its outer shell, potassium is most likely to.
    Lose one electron.

    • Have 7 gain one.
    • 1 or 2 loose one.
  59. If we remove 1 neutron from potassium we will:
    Create a potassium isotope.
  60. Type of chemical bond in which electrons ar shared by wo atoms:
  61. Low glycemic carbohydrates
    Are slowly absorbed into the blood.
  62. The assiciation of proteins with multiple subpoints to function (Like hemoglobin) is considered.
    Quaternary structure.
Card Set
Biology 1-5
Study Guide