1. What is a drug?
    Any chemical that affects the physiologic processes of a living organism.
  2. What are the 4 types of drugs?
    • 1.Prescription-dispensed upon an order of a license helathcare provider
    • 2.Non-prescription-over the counter drug
    • 3.Controlled substance-potentially addictive substances/medications
    • 4.Recreational-illicit drugs. not approved for treatment or disease
  3. What is the chemical name of a drug?
    Describes the drugs chemical composition and molecular structure.
  4. What is the generic name of a drug?
    Name given by the united states adopted name council.
  5. What is the trade name of a drug?
    registered trademark name.
  6. Ibuprofen, Mortion, 50 mg, PO, daily. Mortion is the what name?
    Trade name.
  7. What is Pharmaceutics?
    Study of how various drug forms influence pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic activities.
  8. The study of the body absorbs, distriubtes, metabolizes, and excretes a drug is what?
  9. As the drug metabolizies and it passes the liver first and then into the circulation is called?
    First-Pass effect
  10. Which routes go throught the first pass effect?
    • -Hepatic arterial
    • -oral
    • -portal venous
    • -rectal
  11. What are the routes of administering a drug?
    • -Eternal route- drug absorbed into the systemic circulation through the oral or gastric mucosa
    • -Parenteral rote- only doctors right orders for. All by pass the first-pass effect
    • -Topical-localized areas that will only be used in that area
  12. What is the most common blood protein?
  13. What carries the majority of protein bound drug molecules. If another drug binds, there will be a limited amount of the drug that is not bound.
  14. What is unbound or a "free drug"?
    Drug that the body can use
  15. Metabolism/Biotransformation of a drug is what?
    • - an inactive metabolite.
    • - a more soluble compound
    • - a more potent metabolite
  16. What are the factors that decrease metabolism?
    • -Cardiovascular dysfunction
    • -Renal insufficiency
    • -Starvation
    • -Obstructive jaundice
  17. What is excretion of a drug?
    • The elimination of drugs from the body.
    • -Kidney
    • -Liver
    • -Bowel
  18. What excretion of a drug by intestines, taken by liver, released into bile and then eliminated in feces?
    Biliary excretion
  19. How is a drug absorbed in an enterohepatic recirculation?
    Drug in bile, reaborbed into bloodstream, return to liver, then again secreted into the bile.
  20. What is the primary process involved in drug excretion and the approximate location where these processes take place in the kidneys?
    Glomerular filtration rate
  21. What is half time?
    The time it takes for one original amount of a drug to be removed from the body.
  22. How long does it take most drugs to be considered effectively removed?
    about five half lives
  23. The physiological state in which the amount of drug removed via elimination is equal to the amount of drug absorbed with each dose. Is what?
    the steady state
  24. What are drug actions?
    The cellular processes involved in the drug and cell interaction.
  25. What is the drug effect?
    The physiological reaction of the body to the drug?
  26. The time it takes for a drug to elicit a therapeutic response, is when?
    Onset, also known as the absorption time.
  27. The time a drug concentration is sufficient to elicit a therapeutic response, is when?
    Duration, the whole process of absorption to elimination.
  28. The time it takes for a drug to reach its maximum therapeutic response, is when?
    Peak, right before distribution starts.
  29. What is the peak level?
    The highest blood level. Blood level too high then drug toxicity occurs.
  30. What is the trough level?
    The lowest blood level. Blood level too low at therapeutic levels.
  31. How does a drugs produce therapeutic effects?
    1. Increase/decrease the rate at which the cells or tissues function.
  32. What are the 3 ways drugs can exert their actions?
    • 1.receptor interactions
    • 2.enzyme interactions
    • 3.nonselective interactions
  33. What is pharmacodynamics?
    Concerned with the mechanisms of a drug and its action in living tissues.
  34. The ratio of a drug's toxic level to the level that provides therapeutic benefits is referred to as?
    Therapeutic index. A low index indicates that a drug may have a more chance of having an adverse reaction and causes more monitoring.
  35. What is tolerance to a drug?
    A decreasing response to repeated drug doses.
  36. what is dependence to a drug?
    • A physiological or psychological need to a drug.
    • -Physical dependence=needs drug to avoid symptoms
    • -Psychologic dependenc=addiction
  37. What are the TJC National Patient Safety Goals for administering meds?
    • 1. The nursing process is the foundation for medication administration.
    • 2.Ensuring patient safety is the nurse's primary responsibility in administering medication.
  38. How many identifiers are required to administer meds? And what are they?
    • 2 idenitifers
    • Name and DOB
  39. What to look for on the patients id bracelet?
    2 idenitifers and any known allergies
  40. How many times should you check the medication before administering? How many signatures required for high alert drugs?
    check 3 times before administering. 2 signatures required.
  41. When charting medications on the MAR what are you charting?
    • 1.Therapeutic responses
    • 2.Adverse reactions
  42. True/False.
    It is okay to leave the patient if they have not finished all their meds.
    False, never leave medications on the bedside table or meal trays
  43. Single dose/Unit dose are distruibuted and stored where?
    Distributed by pharmacy and stored in the med cart
  44. Stock meds are distributed by and stored where?
    Distributed by nurse. Stored on unit.
  45. What are the components of a Physician orders?
    • 1.Client full name
    • 2.Date & time
    • 3.Drug name
    • 4.Drug dose
    • 5.Route
    • 6.Frequency
    • 7.Signature
  46. What are the six rights?
    • Right...
    • -Medication
    • -Dose
    • -Route
    • -Patient
    • -Time
    • -Document
  47. What are the forms of medications?
    • -solid (pill form)
    • -liquid
    • --Troche (lozenge)
    • --Aerosol (inhalers)
    • --sustained release (not crushable pills)
    • -Topical (eye drop)
    • -Parenteral (IV & injections0
    • -Suppositories
  48. True/False.
    Oral (PO) is the easiest and most common route for patients.
  49. Which route of a drug prevents destruction of a drug in the GI. Allow rapid absorption into bloodstream. No fluids allowed. Can not swallow.
    Sublingual and Buccal
  50. After administering a topical route (eye drops) how long should you apply pressure to the patients nasolacrimal duct.
    30 to 60 seconds
  51. What is the difference between side effects and adverse effects?
    • S/e=are predictable and unavoidable
    • A/e=unintendeds, undesirable, and unpredictiable
  52. What is a idiosyncratic reactions?
    an abnormal and unexpected response to a medication, not an allergic reaction.
  53. The effect of two medications that is greater than the effect of one medication given separately is known as a?
    Synergistic effect
  54. What are the steps in a collaborative process in regards to drug administration?
    • 1.physician writes the order
    • 2.pharmacist checks and fills/inputs medication orders
    • 3.nurse checks and administers the meds & documents
  55. What are the nurses responsibilites in drug administrations?
    • Correct adminstration
    • Assessment & interventions for therapuetic reactions and adverse effects of the medication
    • Ready to respond to adverse/side effects
    • First to respond to drug responses
  56. Where should you be looking when assessing patient?
    • chart
    • medical records
    • diagnostic studies
    • interview with families/client
  57. True/False.
    Never tell the patient what drug they are getting, why they are getting it, effectiveness and route of the drug.
    False. Always tell patient.
  58. What are tips for teaching about drugs?
    • be positive
    • include significant others
    • emphasize to take drug as prescribed
    • provide written instructions
    • space instructions over serval sessions
  59. What are the two ethical nursing practices?
    • American Nurses Association (ANA)
    • International Council of Nurses (ICN)
  60. What is the nursing responsibilities under the ANA?
    Respect the rights, dignity, and wishes of each client.
  61. True/False.
    Clients have the right to refuse drugs, be informed about their drugs, drug actions, and any side effects.
  62. In the US, who has to approve all prescription drugs?
  63. What are the FDA approval process steps?
    • 1.Preclinical testing
    • 2.Clinical studies
    • 3.Investigational drug studies
    • 4.Expedited drug approval
  64. What are the clinical phases of investigational studies?
    • Phase I-small groups of healthy adults
    • Phase II-volunteers w/ the disease
    • Phase III-Large groups of pts. w/ medical researchers
    • Phase IV-post market studies
  65. List the ethical principles involvoing human subjects.
    • Autonomy-respect for the person
    • Beneficence-duty not to harm others
    • Justice-be fair to all patients
    • Veracity-tell the truth
    • Confidentiality-respect privileged information
  66. The RN is responsible for what in a drug study?
    • Promotes individual autonomy
    • Protects clients from harm
    • Avoids fraud in health care
    • Encourage professionals to be thorough and clear in communicating information
    • Promotes educated decision making among clients
    • Promotes of self-determiniation of the client
  67. What is drug polymorphism?
    The effect of a patient's age, gender, size, and body composition and other variables on the client's ability to metabolize specific drugs
  68. What theraphy maintains the integrity of body functions while patient is recovering from illness or trauma?
    Supportive theraphy
  69. What theraphy supplies the body with a substance needed to maintain normal function?
    Supplemental theraphy
  70. What theraphy involves more intensive drug treatments and is implemented in the acutely ill or even critically ill?
    Acute theraphy
  71. What theraphy goal it to make the patient as comfortable as possible. Typically used in the end stages of an illness when all else has failed.
    Palliative theraphy
  72. What theraphy typically does not remove a problem the patient has but does prevent progression of a disease or condition?
    Maintenance theraphy
Card Set
pharm test #1