Anatomy and Physiology

  1. Anatomy
    studies the structure of body parts and their relationships to one another
  2. Physiology
    concerns the function of the body, how the body parts work and carry out their life-sustaining activities
  3. gross, macroscopic anatomy
    • the study of large body structures visible to the naked eye
    • ex: heart, lungs, and kidneys
  4. regional anatomy
    • all the structures in a particular region of the body are examined at the same time
    • ex: abdomen or leg
  5. systematic anatomy
    • body structure is studied system by system
    • ex: cardiovascular system, examine the heart and the blood vessels of the entire body
  6. surface anatomy
    • the study of internal structures as they related to the overlying skin surface
    • ex: the bulging muscles beneath a bodybuilder's skin, locating blood vessels to feel pulses and draw blood
  7. microscopic anatomy
    • deals with structures too small to be seen with the naked eye
    • subdivision: cytology and histology
  8. cytology
    considers the cells of the body
  9. histology
    the study of tissues
  10. developmental anatomy
    traces structural changes that occur in the body throughout the life span
  11. embryology
    a subdivision of developmental anatomy, concerns developmental changes that occur before birth
  12. pathological anatomy
    studies structural changes caused by disease
  13. radiographic anatomy
    studies internal structures as visualized by X-ray images or specialized scanning procedures
  14. palpation
    feeling organs with your hands
  15. ausculatation
    listening to organ sounds with a stethoscope
  16. renal physiology
    concerns kidney function and urine production
  17. neurophysiology
    explains the workings of the nervous system
  18. cardiovascular physiology
    examines the operation of the heart and blood vessels
  19. chemical level
    atoms combine to form molecules
  20. cellular level
    cells are made up of molecules
  21. tissue level
    tissues consist of similar types of cells
  22. organ level
    organs are made up of different types of tissues
  23. organ system level
    • organ systems consist of different organs that work together closely
    • ex: integumentary, skeletal, muscular, nercous, endocrine, lymphatic, resiratory, digestive, urinary, and reproductive systems
  24. organismal level
    the human organism is made up of many organ systems
  25. maintaining boundaries
    every living organism has its internal environment remains distinct from the external environment surrounding it
  26. movement
    • the activites promoted by the muscular system
    • ex: propelling oneself from one place to another by running
  27. responsiveness, irritability
    the ability to sense changes (which serve as a stimuli) in the environment and then respond to them
  28. digestion
    the breaking down of ingested foodstuffs to simple molecules that can be absorbed into the blood
  29. metabolism
    a broad term that includes all chemical reactions that occur within the body cells
  30. catabolism
    the break down of substances into their simpler building blocks
  31. anabolism
    synthesizing more complex cellular structures from simpler substances
  32. cellular respiration
    using nutrients and oxygen to preoduce ATP
  33. excretion
    the process of removing wastes from the body
  34. reproduction
    • occurs at the cellular and the organismal level:
    • cellular- the original cell divides by producing daughter cells that may be used for body growth or repair
    • organismal- making a whole new person from the sperm uniting with an egg
  35. growth
    an increase in size of a body part or the organism
  36. nutrients
    taken in via the diet, contain the chemical substances used for energy and cell building
  37. oxygen
    the chemical reactions that release energy from foods are oxidative reactions that require oxygen
  38. water
    accounts fro 60-80% of our body weight, provides the watery environment necessary for chemical reactions and fluid base for body secretions and excretions
  39. normal body temperature
    must be maintained or death may occur, if drops below 37oC means metabolic reactions become slower and slower & if it's too high the reactions occur at a frantic pace and body proteins lose their shape and stop functioning
  40. atmospheric pressure
    is the force that air exerts on the surface of the body, breathing and gas exchange in the lungs depend on appropriate atmospheric pressure
  41. homeostasis
    the ability to maintain relatively stable internal conditions even though the outside world changes continuously
  42. variable
    the factor or event being regulated
  43. receptor
    the first component is some type of sensor that monitors the environment and responds to changes
  44. control center
    determines the set point, which is the level or range at which a variable is to be maintained
  45. negative feedback
    the output shuts off the original effect of the stimulus or reduces its intensity
  46. positive feedback
    the result or response enhances the original stimulus so that the response is accerlerated
  47. homeostatic imbalance
    homeostasis is so important that most disease can be regarded as a result of its disturbance,
Card Set
Anatomy and Physiology
The Human Body: An Orientation