1. What is nutrition?
    The science of food, the nutrients, and the substances therein; their action, interaction, and balance in relation to health and disease; and the pricess by which the organism ingests, digests, absorbs, transports, utilizes and excretes food.
  2. What two areas are nutrients divided into?
    Macro/micro nutrients
  3. What are the functional categories of nutrients?
    • 1) provide energy
    • 2) promote growrh and development
    • 3) regulate body processes
  4. What provides energy?
    • -most carbs
    • -proteins
    • -most lipids (fats/oils)
  5. What promotes growth and development?
    • -proteins
    • -lipids
    • -some vitamins/minerals
    • -water
  6. What regulates body processes?
    • -proteins
    • -some lipids
    • -some vitamins/minerals
    • -Water
  7. Carbs are composed of what elements?
  8. Simple carbs are?
  9. Complex carbs are?
    Polysaccharides in food and glycogen in our bodies.
  10. Functions of carbs?
    • -Energy generation
    • -regulate blood glucose
    • -break down fatty acids
  11. What is sugar?
    Readily usable form of carbs.

    -sucrose, simple carbs
  12. What is starch?
    Storage form of carbs in foods.

    -complex carbs
  13. What are lipids? (fats)
    Compounds that are insoluable in water, BUT soluable in organic solvents.

    -ex: ether, benzene
  14. What r lipids comprised of?
    C, H and O.
  15. What r triglycerides?
    Major form of fat on food and major form of energy source and storage in our bodies.
  16. What are the 4 types of fatty acids?
    • 1) saturated
    • 2) unsaturated
    • 3) trans
    • 4) essential
  17. What is protein composed of?
    C, H, O and N.
  18. What r the functions of proteins?
    Enzymes, muscles, cell signaling, blood and transport, provide energy

    -4 cal/gm
  19. How many amino acids are there?
    20. Different combinations make different proteins.

    • -9 amino acids are essential.
    • -1 aa is essential for infants
  20. Vitamins are divided into what two groups?
    Water soluable and fat soluable.
  21. What vitamins are water soluble?
    • -Vitamins C and B complex
    • -more easily excreted from the body
    • -easily destroyed by cooking
  22. What vitamins are fat soluble?
    • -vitamins A, D, E and K.
    • -more easily stored in the body.
    • -greater risk for toxicity.
  23. Are minerals organic/inorganic compounds?
  24. Minerals are divided into what two mineral groups?
    1) major

    2) trace
  25. What are the major minerals?
    Sodium, potassium, chloride, calcium and phosphorus

    -required on grain amounts
  26. What are the trace minerals?
    Iron, zinc, copper and selenium

    -Required less than 100 mg/day
  27. Is water a macro/micro nutrient?

    -required in largest quantity
  28. What are the sources of water?
    Beverages, foods and metabolism.
  29. Phytochemicals are?
  30. Zoochemicals are?
  31. What are photo and zoo chemicals?
    Physiologically active compounds that provide health benefits but are not essential nutrients.
  32. What is fiber?
    A complex carb. That forms the structure of plants.
  33. What are the main two types of carbs?

  34. What makes up the 6 nutrients?
    • Carbs
    • Lipids
    • Protein
    • Vitamins
    • Minerals
    • Water
  35. What r the functions of lipids?
    Provides 9 kal/g

    Energy storage

    Hormone synthesis

    Membrane constituents
  36. What r the fuel values for carbs, fats, protein and alcohol?
    4, 9, 4, 7. Cal/g
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