What is nutrition?
The science of food, the nutrients, and the substances therein; their action, interaction, and balance in relation to health and disease; and the pricess by which the organism ingests, digests, absorbs, transports, utilizes and excretes food.
What two areas are nutrients divided into?
What are the functional categories of nutrients?
- 1) provide energy
- 2) promote growrh and development
- 3) regulate body processes
What provides energy?
- -most carbs
- -most lipids (fats/oils)
What promotes growth and development?
- -some vitamins/minerals
What regulates body processes?
- -some lipids
- -some vitamins/minerals
Carbs are composed of what elements?
Complex carbs are?
Polysaccharides in food and glycogen in our bodies.
Functions of carbs?
- -Energy generation
- -regulate blood glucose
- -break down fatty acids
What is sugar?
Readily usable form of carbs.
-sucrose, simple carbs
What is starch?
Storage form of carbs in foods.
What are lipids? (fats)
Compounds that are insoluable in water, BUT soluable in organic solvents.
-ex: ether, benzene
What r lipids comprised of?
C, H and O.
What r triglycerides?
Major form of fat on food and major form of energy source and storage in our bodies.
What are the 4 types of fatty acids?
- 1) saturated
- 2) unsaturated
- 3) trans
- 4) essential
What is protein composed of?
C, H, O and N.
What r the functions of proteins?
Enzymes, muscles, cell signaling, blood and transport, provide energy
How many amino acids are there?
20. Different combinations make different proteins.
- -9 amino acids are essential.
- -1 aa is essential for infants
Vitamins are divided into what two groups?
Water soluable and fat soluable.
What vitamins are water soluble?
- -Vitamins C and B complex
- -more easily excreted from the body
- -easily destroyed by cooking
What vitamins are fat soluble?
- -vitamins A, D, E and K.
- -more easily stored in the body.
- -greater risk for toxicity.
Are minerals organic/inorganic compounds?
Minerals are divided into what two mineral groups?
What are the major minerals?
Sodium, potassium, chloride, calcium and phosphorus
-required on grain amounts
What are the trace minerals?
Iron, zinc, copper and selenium
-Required less than 100 mg/day
Is water a macro/micro nutrient?
-required in largest quantity
What are the sources of water?
Beverages, foods and metabolism.
What are photo and zoo chemicals?
Physiologically active compounds that provide health benefits but are not essential nutrients.
What is fiber?
A complex carb. That forms the structure of plants.
What are the main two types of carbs?
What makes up the 6 nutrients?
What r the functions of lipids?
Provides 9 kal/g
What r the fuel values for carbs, fats, protein and alcohol?
4, 9, 4, 7. Cal/g