Anatomy 2 Test 1

  1. Gluconeogenesis occurs in the liver due to the action of ________.
  2. Virtually all of the protein or amino acid-based
    hormones exert their effects through intracellular ________.
    Second Messengers
  3. ________ release is an example of a positive feedback control mechanism
  4. _____ is inhibited by Alcohol
  5. Which of the following is not a change that may be caused by hormonal stimulus?

    D) direct control of the nervous system
  6. The ability of a specific tissue or organ to respond to the presence of a hormone is dependent on ________.

    B) the presence of the appropriate receptors on the cells of the target tissue or organ
  7. Several hormones are synthesized in the hypothalamus and transported to the anterior pituitary gland. The mechanism of transportation from hypothalamus to anterior pituitary gland is through the________.
    hypophyseal portal system
  8. The second-messenger mechanism of hormone action operates by ________.

    C) binding to specific receptors and employing the services of G proteins and cAMP
  9. Cells that respond to peptide hormones usually do so through a sequence of biochemical reactions involving receptor and kinase activation. In order for cells to respond, it is necessary for first and second messengers to communicate. This is possible because ________.

    B) G protein acts as the link between first and second messengers
  10. When it becomes necessary to enlist the fight-or-flight response, a hormone that is released during the alarm phase of the general adaptation syndrome is ________.

    B) epinephrine
  11. The major targets of growth hormone are ________.

    A) bones and skeletal muscles
  12. Which organ is responsible for synthesizing Atrial
    Natriuretic peptide?

    D) the heart
  13. The walls of the alveoli are composed of two types of cells, type I and type II. The function of type II is to ________.

    A) secrete surfactant
  14. Complete the following statement using the choices below. Air moves out of the lungs when the pressure inside the lungs is

    C) greater than the pressure in the atmosphere.
  15. Unlike inspiration, expiration is a passive act because no muscular contractions are involved. Expiration, however, depends on two factors. Which of the choices below lists those two factors?
    A) the recoil of elastic fibers that were stretched during inspiration and the inward pull of surface
    tension due to the film of alveolar fluid
    B) the expansion of respiratory muscles
    that were contracted during inspiration and the lack of surface tension on the alveolar wall
    C) the negative feedback of expansion fibers used during inspiration and the outward pull of surface tension due to surfactant
    A) the recoil of elastic fibers that were stretched during inspiration and the inward pull of surface tension due to the film of alveolar fluid
  16. Which of the following maintains the patency (openness) of the trachea?

    B) cartilage rings
  17. Intrapulmonary pressure is the ________.

    D) pressure within the alveoli of the lungs
  18. Which of the choices below determines the direction of respiratory gas movement?

    A) partial pressure gradient
  19. Respiratory control centers are located in the ________.

    B) medulla and pons
  20. Oxygen and carbon dioxide are exchanged in the lungs and through all cell membranes by ________.

    C) diffusion
  21. How is the bulk of carbon dioxide carried in blood?

    B) as the bicarbonate ion in the plasma after first entering the red blood cells
  22. The nose serves all the following functions except ________.

    A) as the initiator of the cough reflex
  23. Which of the following does not influence hemoglobin saturation?

    D) nitric oxide
Card Set
Anatomy 2 Test 1
Chapter 23, respiratory system and more