Prob/Stats Ch. 1 Test

  1. statistics
    to collect, organize, analyze data
  2. individuals
    people or objects included in a study
  3. variable
    a characteristic to be studied (age, weight, gender, nationality, etc.)
  4. quantative
    a value or numerical measurement for operations such as addition or average
  5. qualitative
    characterizes an individual by grouping based on similarities (categorial)
  6. population data
    asking every individual in the population
  7. sample data
    data comes from some of the population (a sample of people)
  8. nominal level of measurement
    applies to data that consists of name, labels, or categories
  9. ordinal level of measurement
    applies to data that may be arranged in order. however, differences between data values either cannot be determined or are meaningless
  10. interval level of measurement
    applies to data that can be arranged in order. differences between data values are meaningful. no starting point and/or no zero
  11. ratio level
    applies to data that can be arranged in order. both differences between data values and ratios of data values are meaningful. data has a true zero
  12. simple random sample
    every member of the population has an equal chance of being included in the sample
  13. simulation
    a numerical representation of a real world phenomenon
  14. stratified sampling
    all members of the group (strata) are organized from the population based on characteristics. then a sample is drawn from the group
  15. systematic sampling
    members of the population are sequentially numbered. then, from a starting point, every kth member of the population is included in the sample
  16. clustered
    the entire population is divided into pre-existing segments or clusters (often geographic). clusters are randomly selected and every cluster member is included
  17. convenience sampling
    data are used from population members that are readily available
  18. census
    measurements and observations from an entire population
  19. sample
    measurements or observations from a representative part of the population should be
  20. observational study
    observations and measurements of individuals are conducted in a way that doesn't change the response or the variable being measured
  21. experiment
    measurement is deliberately imposed on the individuals in order to observe a possible change in the response or variable being measured
  22. placebo effect
    occurs when a subject receives no treatment but (incorrectly) believes he or she is in fact receiving treatment and responds favorably
Card Set
Prob/Stats Ch. 1 Test
ch. 1 vocab