Managment Chap4

  1. Attitude?
    • A psychological tendency expressed by evaluating an entity with some degree of favor or disfavor.
    • They are learned, and evolve over time.
  2. Affect?
    An emotional component of attitude.
  3. ABC Model?
    Attitude is founded on Components of: Affect, Intention (to behave), Congition (thought).
  4. Congnitive Dissonance?
    A state of tension that is produced when an individual experiences conflict between attitudes and behaviors.
  5. Social Learning?
    The process of deriving attitudes from family, peer groups, religious organizations, and culture.
  6. Modeling?
    Individuals acquire attitudes by merely watching others.
  7. Attitutude-Behavior Correspondance?
    • Attitude specificity
    • Attitutde relevance (Importance to the individual)
    • Timing of measurement (Shorter time between attitude and behavior is stronger relationship)
    • Personality factors (Self monitoring issues)
    • Social constraints (Compliance with social rules)
  8. Job satisfaction?
    A pleasurable or positive emotional state resulting from the apraisal of one's job or experience.
  9. Job Descriptive Index?
    Index measures the specific facets of satisfaction by asking employees to respond yes, no, or cannot decide to a series of statements describing their jobs.
  10. Minnesota Satisfaction Questionaire?
    This survey asks employees to answer questions about their job on a five point scale.
  11. Rewards?
    • Employees who recieve valued rewards are more satisfied.
    • Employees who recieve rewards contingient with productivity are more productive.
  12. Organizational Citizenship Behavior?
    Behavior that is above and beyond the call of duty.
  13. Absenteeism?
    People who are dissatisfied with their jobs are absent more.
  14. Protestant Work Ethic?
    Work for the value of its own sake, and is part o one's daily life.
  15. Workplace Deviance Behavior?
    Any voluntary counterproductive behavior that violates organizational norms and causes some degree of harm to organizational functioning.
  16. Organizational Commitment?
    The strenth of an individual's identification with an organization.
  17. Affective Commitment?
    An employees's intention to stay with an organization because one desires to.
  18. Continuance Commitment?
    An employee's tendency to to stay with an organization because he or she cannot afford to leave.
  19. Normative Commitment?
    Percieved obligation to stay with the organization.
  20. Source of Persuasion affected by?
    Expertise, Attractivesness, Trustworthiness.
  21. Central Route Persuasion?
    Involves direct cognitive processing of the message's content.
  22. Peripheral Route Persuasion?
    The individual is not motivated to pay much attention to message's content.
  23. Emotions?
    Mental states that typically include feelings, psychological changes, and the inclination to act.
  24. Emotional Contagion?
    A dynamic process through which the emotions of one person are transferred to another either consciously or unconsciously through nonverbal channels.
  25. Ethhics?
    The study of moral values and moral behavior.
  26. Ethical Behavior?
    • Acting in ways consistent with one's personal values and the commonly held values of the organization and society.
    • Failure for a company to do so costs fortunes.
  27. Ethic Decission Requirements?
    • Competence to identify ethical issues.
    • Self confidence to seek out different opinions.
    • Toughmindedness to have the balls toimpliment decisions.
  28. Values?
    Enduring beliefs that a specific mode of conduct or end state of existance is socially or personally perferable to an opposite or converse mose of conduct or end state.
  29. Instrumental Values?
    • Values that represent the acceptable behaviors used in achieving some end state.
    • Highest ranked: Honesty, Ambition, Responsibility, Forgivingness.
  30. Terminal Values?
    • Represent the goals to be achieved or end states of existance.
    • Highest Ranked: World Peace, Family Security, Freedom, Self respect, Freedom, Wisdom.
  31. Work Values?
    Achievement, Concern-for-others, Honesty, Fairness.
  32. Locus and Ethics?
    • Internals are more likely than externals to take responsibility for a given situaion.
    • Internals make more ethical decisions than externals.
    • Internals are more resistant to social pressures.
  33. Machiavellianism?
    • Niccolo Machiavelli was a sixteenth century statesman.
    • Wrote The Price.
    • Manipulation of others was suggested heavily.
    • Referes to the act of being able to do whatever it takes to achieve goals.
  34. Kohlberg's Model?
    • Focuses on the decision-making process and we how justify decisions.
    • Criticised for no gender-distinction.
  35. Cognitive Moral Development?
    The process of moving through stages of maturity in terms of making ethical decisions.
  36. Stages of Cognitive Moral Development?
    • Premoral Level Level 1: Stage 1 is individuals follow rules to avoid punishment.
    • Stage 2 is compliance with rules only if immediate rammifications are present.
    • Conventional Level 2: Stage 3 is people try to live up to expectations of those around them.
    • Stage 4 is compliance with rules of broad society.
    • Principled Level 3: Stage 5 is awareness of diverse value systems.
    • Stage 6 is compliance with self-selected ethical values, follows principles.
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Managment Chap4