SLS 380 Quiz 1 Chapter 1

  1. simultaneous bilingualism
    children learn two languages at birth, aka infant bilingualism or ‘bilingual first language acquisition’
  2. consecutive/sequential bilingualism
    children learn a second language after about three years of age
  3. incipient bilingualism
    • have one well-developed language
    • other is in the early stages of development
  4. ascendant bilingualism
    the second language is developing
  5. recessive bilingualism
    one language is decreasing
  6. endogenous communities
    more than one language used on an everyday basis
  7. exogenous communities
    absence of a second language
  8. passive bilingualism
    bilinguals with a receptive ability, i.e. understanding or reading
  9. additive bilingualism
    a person learns a second language at no cost to their first language
  10. subtractive bilingualism
    the first language is being replaced by the second language
  11. elective bilingualism
    • choose to learn a language, e.g. in a classroom
    • typically come from majority language groups
    • learn second language without losing first
  12. circumstantial bilingualism
    • learn another language to function effectively because of circumstances, i.e. immigrants.
    • first language insufficient to meet their educational, political, and employment requirements and the communicative needs of the majority language society
    • first language in danger of being replaced by second
  13. minimal bilingualism
    people with minimal competence in a second language are also considered bilinguals
  14. maximal bilingualism
    only people with “native-like control of two or more languages” are considered bilinguals
  15. semilingualism
    • deficiencies in bilinguals when compared with monolinguals
    • small vocabulary and incorrect grammar
    • consciously thinking about language production
    • stilted and uncreative with each language
    • finding it difficult to think and express emotions in either language
  16. balanced bilinguals
    someone equally fluent in two languages across various contexts
Card Set
SLS 380 Quiz 1 Chapter 1
SLS 380 - Bilingualism Quiz #1 Study Guide Chapter 1