Path II-Pulmonary

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  1. Pneumonia caused by a Diplocci is?
    strep Pneumonia
  2. Pneumonia by a coccoid shaped gram negative bacteria that causes meningitis in kids?
    H. Influanzea
  3. Cause of Pneumonia in Elderly?
    Moraxella Cattarhalis
  4. Bacteria causing exacerbation of COPD?
    Moraxella Catarrhalis
  5. Secondary pneumonia following a viral infection is caused by?
    S. aureus
  6. Nocosomial Pneumonia or in an IV drug abuser?
    staph aureus
  7. Pneumonia in chronic alcohol?
  8. Atypical pneumonia presents how?
    interstitial without consolidation
  9. Atypical (interstitial)pneumonia is caused by what organisms?
    • Viruses
    • C. pneumonia
    • M. Pneumonia
    • Legionella
  10. Reye syndrome results in what?
    • hepatoencephalopathy
    • Aspirin inhibits beta oxidation, cirhosis of liver, low albumin, low oncotic pressure, cerebral edema
  11. Elevated cold agglutinins are found in what pneumonia?
  12. Atypical pneumonia can lead to typical pneumonia how?
    secondary bacterial infection
  13. Lung abscess usually occur where in the lung?
    right lower lobe because of aspiration
  14. Causes for lung abscess?
    • aspiration
    • obstruction
    • s. aureus
  15. What is miliary TB
    dissemination of Tb to meningees, spleen, bone
  16. Tb in lumbar vertebrae?
    Pott disease
  17. TO be diagnosed with COPD how long must the copious cough last?
    at least 3 months for 2 consecutive years
  18. Which obstructive disease gives blue bloaters?
    chronic bronchitis
  19. Pink puffers are who?
  20. Reid index measures what?
    thickness of mucus glands to thickness from epithelium to cartilage. the bigger the ratio the more severe chronic bronchitis
  21. Hypertrophy of bronchial mucus glands occurs in what condition?
    Chronic Bronchitis
  22. What are complication of chronic Bronchitis?
    • infections
    • Cor pulmonale
    • carcinoma
  23. 2 types of Emphysema?
    • panacinar
    • Centriacinar
  24. Which emphysema type is associated with alpha 1 antitrypsin deficiency?
  25. Which emphysema type is associated with smoking?
  26. Which type of emphysema is associated with chronic bronchitis?
  27. Paraseptal emphysema is involved with enlargement of what part of the acinus?
    distal part-adjecent to fibrosis, atelectasis
  28. What is asthma?
    episodic bronchospasm
  29. 2 types of asthma?
    • extrinsic--type I hypersensitivity--allergic
    • intrinsic--idiopathic
  30. What is Curshmann's spiral?
    epithelial cells enclosed by mucus
  31. What structural changes are see in the bronchioles in asthma?
    • hypertrophic mucus-goblet cells
    • thickened basement membrane
  32. Bronchiestasis?
    • Alveolar dilation
    • Cause:
    • Ostruction
    • Cystic fibrosis, kartageners leading to necrotizing pneumonia and permanent dilation of the alveoli
  33. Causes for hypoplasia?
    • Oligohydramnios
    • Renal Problems
  34. WHat is a bronchogenic cyst?
    abnormal detached primitive gut
  35. Congenital Pulmonary artery Malformation 1 has large or small cysts?
    • large
    • small
  36. which atelectasis is irriversible?
  37. Which emphysema can lead to a spontaneous pneumothorax when the bullae ruptures?
    Septal emphysema
  38. Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis results from what?
    repeated cycles of injury and wound healing with collagen in the interstitial space leading to increased diffusing distance
  39. Honeycomb fibrosis is seen in what lung disease?
    restirictive---Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis
  40. What is pneumoconicosis?
    inhalation of mineral dust--silicosis, asbestosis, berrileym, coal
  41. Which lung diseases can progress to Cor pulmonale?
    all lung diseases
  42. Eggshell calcification of hilar lymph nodes is seen in which restrictive pneumoconiscosis?
  43. Coal and silicosis pneumoconicosis affect which part of the lungs?
    upper lobes
  44. What is Caplan Syndrome?
    Coal Miners Pneumoconicosis + rheumatoid Nodules
  45. Which Pneumoconicosis increases susceptibility to TB?
    • Silicosis
    • silica prevents the fusion of the phagolysosome
  46. Dystrophic Calcification of hilar lymph nodes in Silicosis is called?
  47. WHat 3 conditions have night sweats?
    • Tb,
    • Hodgkin Lymphoma
    • Takayasu arteritis
  48. What 3 conditions produce cavitaiton of lungs?
    aspergillosis, tb, silicosis
  49. WHich 2 pneumoconicosis increase risk for carcinoma?
    • silicosis
    • asbestosis
  50. What are the 4 disease that asbestosis can produce?
    • plaques
    • fibrosis, pleural effusion
    • bronchogenic
    • mesothelioma
  51. What are the features of Sarcoidosis?
    • Gammaglobulinemia
    • RA
    • ACE high
    • Interstitial fibrosis
    • Non-caseating granulomas--lung, liver, spleen,
  52. High TNF levels, non caseating granulomas and bihilar lymphadenopathy are features of ?
  53. Marker of disease activity for sarcoidosis?
  54. Shaumann and Asteroid bodies are characteristic of what?
  55. Hypersensitivity pneumonitis?
    immune mediated interstitial fibrosis mediated by inhalation of organic antigens: bacterial, fungal spores
  56. Dust contating spores of thermophillic actinomyces produces what?
    Farmer's lung--hypersensitivity pneumonitis
  57. Pigeon's breeder lung
    antigens from bird exreta are inhaled producing intersticia fibrosis due to hypersensitivity pneumonitis
  58. All hypersensitiity pneumonitis produce what characteristic morphological tissue pattern of cells and structures?
    • granuloma--Hypersensitivity Type IV
    • Lymphocytes--TH1
  59. ARDS is caused by what?
    diffuse damage to the alveolar and capillary epithelium
  60. What is seen on microscopy in ARDS?
    • Interstial inflammation
    • alveolar and interstitial edema
    • hyaline membrane lining the alveolus
  61. What is the treatment for ARDS?
    postitive end expiratory pressure
  62. Why does a cessarian section decrease surfactant production?
    bc no stress= no surfactant
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Path II-Pulmonary
Path II-Pulmonary
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