Scottish physician who accidentally discovered the antibiotic penicillin (1928)
an antimicrobial agent usually produced naturally by a bacterium or fungus
Anton Von Leeuwenhock
a dutch maker of microscopes "the father of microbiology" whose observations of living microscopic organisms were published from 1673-1723
laboratory techniques used to minimize contamination
the theory that living cells arise only from pre-existing cells
all living organisms are composed of cells and arise from pre-existing cell
treatment of disease with chemical substances
a russian botanist who showed that when sap from infected tobacco mosaic plants was passed thru a filter known to remove all bacteria, the filtered sap could still infect other plants (1892) ~Virus
English physician who discovered that people vaccinated with cowpox were protected from small pox (1798)
the enzymatic degredation of carbohydrates in which the final electron acceptor is an organic molecule; ATP is synthesized by substrate lvl phophorylation and O2 is not required
(microorganisms called yeasts convert the sugars to alcohol in the absence of air)
Italian Physician who designed the rotting meat experiment in 1668 to refute spontaneous generation
The Germ Theory of Disease
the principle that microorganisms cause disease
English clergyman who supported spontaneous generation in 1745, he poured boiled chicken broth into flasks and then sealed them; microorganisms grew.
Italian priest who refuted spontaneous generatin in 1765, he modified Needham's experiments by sealing flasks containing broth, then boiling the broth: NO microorganisms grew
french chemist who refuted spontaneous generation. In 1861 he designed an experiment that incorporated methods from Needhams & Spallanzani's exp. He boiled the broth in the flask (spallanzani's) & bent the neck of the flask into an "S"-shaped curve, allowing air to enter (Needham) NO microorganisms grew
He also demonstrated that fermentation of sugar to alchohol (beer/wine production) was due to yeast. 1857. The souring of beer & wine was due to the presence of bacteria. He developed pasteurization (1864); the heating of sugar solution to kill the bacteria & prevent spoilage of beverages.
a living organism to small to be seen with the naked eye; includes: bacteria, fungi, protozoa & microsopic algae, also includes viruses
the process of mild heating to kill spoilage microorganisms or pathogens
germanphysician who discovered the "magic bullet". salversan: a synthetic chemotherapeutic agent for syphillis (1910)
German scientist who proposed the "cell theory" (1858) which refutes spontaneous generation by stating that "living cells can arise only from preexisting living cells"
the idea that life could arise spontaneously from nonliving matter
a chemotherapeutic agent that is prepared from chemicals in a lab
the scientific study of viruses
american biochemist discovered that the agent that caused tobacco mosaic virus was so chemically simple and homogeneous that it could be crystallized like a chemical compound (1935)
a german dr who discovered that the disease antrhax was caused by a specific bacterium~Bacillus anthracis~ (1876) his research provided evidence for the germ theory of disease
English natural philosopher who coined the term "cell" in 1665 after observing plant cells with a microscope
Who finally disproved the theory of spontaneous generation?
Which of the following is not a beneficial activity of microorganisms?
B. Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS)
Who observed cells in plant material?
Regarding Pasteur's experiments with the S-neck flask, which of the following statements is not true?
B. most of the microorganisms were killed before the beginning
Who was the first to observe microorganisms with a microscope?
C. van Leeuwenhoek
Which of the following findings was essential for Jenner's vaccination process?
B. a weakend microorganism may produce immunity
Which of the following requirements was not necessary for Pasteur to disprove spontaneous generation? a. Providing a food source that would support growth
b.keeping microorganisms out c. supplying air d. keeping the microorganisms that were initially present
d. keeping the microorganisms that were initially present
Who proved that microorganisms cause disease?
Which ofthe following is probably true about all the experiments that proved spontaneous generation?
C. micoorganisms were already present
Pasteurization was first developed to kill ___________ in wine.
A. spoilage bacteria
In Pasteur's swan neck flask experiment, the importance of the S-shaped curves in the flasks was two fold. The curves allowed air to enter, and yet excluded:
C. airborne bacteria
An exposure to_____________protects against infection with smallpox.
How would you recognize an antibiotic-producing soil bacterium on a plate crowded with other bacteria? The bacterial colony producing the antibiotic would be:
C. surrounded by a clear area
In 1668, he demonstrated that maggots appeared only in decaying meat that had been exposed to flies.
Introduced the conept that living cells arise from other living cells.
Introduced the technique of vaccination for small pox.
First to use the microscope to observe "cells."
First to speculate about the possibility of a "magic bullet"that would destroy a pathogen without harming the host.
Showed that mild heating of spirits kills spoilage bacteria without damage to the beverage.