1. principles of complementarity
    biochemical activities of cells are dictated by subcellular structures of cells
  2. plasma membrane
    seperates the interior of the cell from the exterior
  3. plasma membrane-basic features
    thin later composed of a lipid bilater with embedded proteins
  4. phospholipid bilater
    phospholipid is hydrophilic and polar and the two fatty acid tails are hydrophobic and nonpolar
  5. integral proteins
    proteins firmly inserted in the lipid layer, some form clusters or channels for small water-soluble molecules or ions to move through the lipid bilayer and other function as carrier proteins
  6. peripheral proteins
    loosely attatched, some are supportive filaments and some are enzymes
  7. glycocalyx
    carbohydrate coating on the outer surface of the cell membrane, provides highly specific biological markers
  8. cholesterol plates
    stabalize the cell membrane
  9. microvilli
    minute fingerlike extensions of the plasma membrane that increase the absorptive surface area
  10. tight junctions
    protein molecules in adjacent plasma membranes forming an impermeable junction, precent molecules from passing throught the extravellular space (GI tract)
  11. desmosomes
    anchoring junctions, also contribute to a continuous internal network suport (skin, heart muscle)
  12. gap junctions
    allow chemicals to pass between adjacent cells, ions, sugars and other small molecules can pass through
  13. interstitial fluid
    cells sit in the extracellular fluid
  14. passive properties
    substances go through the membrane without using energy
  15. diffusion
    molecules move from high concentration to low concentration
  16. simple diffusion
    substances that are nonpolar and lipid soluble including oxygen and carbon dioxide can go through the lipid membrane, small polar and charged particles can diffuse through the water filled protein
  17. facilitated diffusion
    passive process, but requires binding to a protein carrier, molecules such as glucose are too large for the protein channels and too polar for the lipid bilayer, change in structure of the carrier protein as it moves glucose across the membrane, transport limited by the number of carriers
  18. osmosis
    the diffusion of a solvent such as water across the cell membrane
  19. osmotic pressure
    the pull on water by solute concentration
  20. hydrostatic pressure
    pushing water across the membrane,filtration
  21. isotonic
    the same concentration of solutes as a cell
  22. hypotonic
    solutions more dilute than cells
  23. hypertonic
    solutions more concentrated than cells
  24. filtration
    to force water and other solutes across a membrane by fluidor hydrostatic pressure
  25. active processes
    the cell provides energy to moce substances through the membrane
  26. active transport
    requires a carrier that is specific, and because it transports against the concentration gradient, requires energy
  27. primary active transport
    hydrolysis of ATP results in phosphorylation of the transport protein, which changes shape and pumps the solute across the membrane
  28. sodium-potassium pump
    drives sodium out and potassium into the cell
  29. secondary active transport
    pump the maintains sodium gradient, that can secondarily transports another solute
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