What is the difference between an artery and vein?
Artery- internal elastic lamina,
What is Mockenberg's arteriosclerosis?
calcification of media layer in small and medium sized blood vessels
A disease of the bone that has ateriovenous malformations which can lead to high output cardiac failure?
Paget's disease of bone
Paget's disease is due to increased activity of what?os
osteoblasts and osteoclasts
3 types of Arteriosclerosis?
Mockenberg calcific arteriosclerosis
In Mockenberg arteriosclerosis, where are calcium salts deposited?
in the intima layer
In atherosclerosis, where are cholesterols laiden macrophages/foam cells found?
Cholesterol rich plaques deposited in the intima layer of a BV are called?
What condition produces concentric LV hypertrophy?
What kind of vascular pathology presents with onion skinning?
What is malignant hypertension?
What kind of hypertension causes end organ damage?
Hypertension causes what in end organs? be it brain, kidney, retina?
hemorrhage--in brain--intracerebral hemorrhages
kidney hemorrhage--eventually kidney failure
What is the mutation in Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy?
beta myosin heavy chain
What are the causes of aneurysm?(abnormal dilation of a blood vessel due to weakening of the wall)
Congenital( Marfans, Ehler's Danlos)
What are the different types of Aneurysms?
What are the 3 fates of aneurysm?
Compression of Surrounding structures
Why do AAA occur below the renal arteries(L4)?
because there is poor blood supply because the vasa vasorum doesnt supply blood there so there is poor repair and the wall becomes weak over time because of stress be it hemodynamic, infections, atherosclerosis, Diabetes Mellitus
When the lumen of a BV is occluded how much, do you hear a bruit?
Obliterative endoarteritis occurs as a result of what bacterial infection of the Blood vessel wall?
Mycotic Aneurysm is caused by what?
In what 2 congenital conditions do you get berry aneurysms?
Coarctation of Aorta
Where does a berry aneurysm occur?
at the bifurcation of the anterior communicating and anterior cerebral artery
In berry aneurysms caused by congenital defects, what is missing in the blood vessels rendering it susceptible to an aneurysm?
internal elastic membrane
Rupture of what artery produces a subarachnoid hemorrhage?
bifurcation of anterior communicating artery with anterior cerebral artery
What trace element is needed for lysyl oxidase in Ehler's Danlos syndrome?
What would be seen on an Xray with proximal aortic dissection?
What is the secondary cause of Hypertension?
Renal Artery Stenosis
90% of aortic stenosis occurs in what part of aorta?
proximal--1st 10 cm
Polyarteritis is what type hypersensitivity?
What antigen is usually implicated in PAN?
What is usually spared in PAN?
Which vasculitis has lesions in different stages of development?
Which vasculitis has c-ANCA?
What vasculitis has granulomas with eosinophilia and asthma?
Hypersensitivity to Hep B and Amphetamines produces what vasculitis?
What 2 vasculitedes have p-ANCA antigen?
What vasculitis produces neuropathy?
What vasculitis involves the coronary arteries?
Kawasaki affects what age group?
Microscopic Polyangitis is what type of Hypersensitivity?
What can cause Microscopic Polyangitis?
Drugs: penicillin, sulfonamides
Bacteria: beta hemolytic streptococcus, Hep B
In terms of Lesions how are PAN and Microscopic polyangitis different?
PAN-lesions of different age
Microscopic polyangitis--lesion of same age
Giant cell arteritis involves what arteries?
temporal and extra cranial branches
What condition is associated with Giant cell arteritis?
High ESR is suggestive of what Vasculitis?
Giant Cell Arteritis
What vasculitides have granulomas?
Giant cell arteritis
Which vasculitis is the "pulseless"?
Which vasculitis is similar to measles bc of a rash and lymphadenopathy?
Young and Middle aged asian women get what vasculitis?
Cigarette smoking, intermittent claudication are associated with what vasculitis?
Thromboangitis obliterans is associated with what vasculitis?
Wegener's affects what 3 organ systems?
renal, pulmonary, sinuses
When arteriospasm occurs secondary to a Mixed CT disease it is called what?
Raynauds disease occurs due to what?
Raynauds phenomenon occurs in what conditions?
What Vasculitis occurs following a URI?
HSP affects what 3 parts of the body?
Skin, Joints , GI
IgA nephropathy affecting children?
What are the 3 regions where varicose Veins may become engorged?