The capsule of Streptococcus mutans is an important virulence factor that
Which of the following disorders is LEAST likely to be included in the differential diagnosis of a patient with acute appendicitis?
Uncomplicated healing of a wound by secondary intention, observed microscopically at three days, is MOST likely to show evidence of which of the following?
Classic model of wound healing:
2. inflammatory- bacteria/debris phagocytized and removed
1. PMNs- 1st 2 days + T cells--> cleanse wound
2. Macrophages- after 2 days
- essential to wound healing (phagocytize bacteria and damaged tissue)
- angiogenesis by vascular endothelial cells
- collagen deposition by fibroblasts
- granulation tissue formation (type III)--> replaced later with type I
- epithelialization- epithelial cells proliferate and crawl up wound bed to cover
- wound contraction by myofibroblasts
4. remodeling - collagen remodeled and realigned along tensions lines; cells no longer needed undergo apoptosis
1. Primary intention- e.g. surgical incision
- no/minimal scar formation
- wound edges line up
2. Secondary intention- e.g. gingivectomy, gingivoplasty, tooth extraction
- granulates--> scar formation- slower healing + wound care
3. Tertiary- e.g. healing of wounds by use of tissue grafts
- wound is cleaned and observed; left open
Patients with which of the following malignancies have the poorest prognosis?
- poor prognosis
- 3 yr survival rate is 30%
- "silent killer" bc usually doesn't cause symptoms
- later symptoms are non-specific: jaundice, pain in upper abdomen, weight loss
- diabetes mellitis
- H. pylori
- family history
- gingivitis or perio disease
Which of the following is the MOST important function of bacterial pili in causing human infectious disease?A) Allowing bacteria to adhere to human cells
B) Destroying phagocytic macrophages and neutrophils
C) Making the bacteria motile
D) Transfering DNA from one bacterium to another
fimbriae= short pilus used to attach bacteria to host surface
- mutant bacteria that lack fimbriae can't attach to surface and can't cause disease
- found in gram - and gram + bacteria
A patient with rheumatic heart disease is MOST likely to develop congestive heart failure due which of the following?
Which of the following are directly associated with destruction of glomerular basement membranes in a patient with glomerulonephritis?
If Type A blood is accidentally transfused into a Type B recipient, the immediate hemolytic reaction would be the result of which of the following?
A patient who has anemia, poorly localized abdominal pain, and wrist and foot drop probably is manifesting a toxic state induced by which of the following?