What are the Main Elements of the Cell?
- Cell membrane
What is a Cell?
Basic structural unit of all plants & animals. Membrane enclosing a thick fluid & a nucleus.
What is a cell membrane?
The outer covering of a cell; aka. plasma membrane
What does Semipermeable?
Able to allow some, but not all, substances to pass through. Cell membranes are semipermeable.
What is Cytoplasm?
The thick fluid that fills a cell; aka. protoplasm
What are Organelles?
Structures that perform specific functions within a cell
What are the '6' most important organelles?
- Endoplasmic reticulum
- Golgi Apparatus
What are the '7' functions of cells?
- Metabolic Absorption
What is the Nucleus?
The organelle within a cell that contains the DNA, or genetic material; in the cells of higher organisms, the nucleus is surrounded by a membrane
What is Adenosine Triphosphate (ATP)?
A high energy compund present in all cells. Energy is stored ATP.
What is the Structural Hierarchy of the Body? Smallest to largest...
- 1. Cells
- 2. Tissues
- 3. Organs
- 4. Organ Systems
- 5. Organism
What is a Tissue?
A group of cells that perform a similar function.
What is Epithelial Tissue?
The protective tissue that lines internal & external body tissues.
What is muscle tissue?
Tissue that is capable of contraction when stimulated.
What are the three types of 'muscle' tissue?
- Cardiac: heart muscle, spontaneous contraction
- Smooth: intestines & blood vessels, involuntary contraction
- Skeletal: allows movement, voluntary control
What is Connective Tissue?
Most abundant body tissue, provides support, connection & insulation (i.e. bones, cartilage, fat)
What is Nerve Tissue?
Transmits electrical impulses throughout the body
What is an Organ?
Group of tissues functioning together (i.e heart, brain, liver)
What is an Organ System?
Group of organs that work together (ie. cardiovascular system - heart, blood vessels, & blood)
What are the '10' Organ Systems?
What is an Organism?
The sum of all the cells, tissues, organs, & organ systemsof a living being.
What is Homostasis?
Natural tendency of the body to maintain a steady & normal internal environment
What is Anatomy?
Structure of an organism
What is Physiology?
Functions of an organism; physical & chemical processes of a living thing
What is Metabolism?
Total changes that take place during physiological processes
Disease effects the body in '2' places?
- Local: at the site of the illness or injury
- Systemic: throughout the body
What is the Negative Feedback Loop?
Body mechanisms that work to reverse/compensate for any pathophysiological process
What '2' body systems are considered the body's control systems?
What is Total Body Water (TBW)?
The total amount of water in the body at a given time
What is Intracellular fluid (ICF)?
The fluid inside the body cells
What is Extracellular Fluid (ECF)?
The fluid outside the body cells; comprised of intracellular fluid & interstitial fluid
What is Intravascular Fluid?
Fluid within the circulatory system; ie. blood plasma
What is Interstitial Fluid?
Fluid in body tissues that is outside the cells & outside the vascular system
What is a Solvent?
Substance that dissolves other substance, forming a solution
What is Dehydration?
Excessive loss of body fluid
What are some Causes of Dehydration?
- Open Wounds
What are some of the clinical signs of a dehydrated patient?
- Dry mucus membranes
- Poor skin turgor
- Excessive thrist
- Increased pulse
- Decreased BP
- Infants: anterior fontanelle sunken, dry diapers, no tears
What is Turgor?
Normal tension in a cell; the resistance of the skin to deformation (tenting of skin when pinched = dehydration)
What is Overhydration?
Presence of retention of an abnormally high amt of body fluid
What is an electrolyte?
Substance in water that separates into electrically charged particles
What is Dissociate?
To separate or breakdown into parts
What is an Ion?
What is a Cation?
Ion with a positive charge
What are the most frequently occurring Cations?
- Sodium - Na
- Potassium - K
- Calcium - Ca
- Magnesium - Mg
What is an Anion?
Ion with a negative charge
What are the most frequently occurring Anions?
- Chloride - Cl
- Bicarbonate - HCO
- Phosphate - HPO4
What is a Buffer?
Substance that tends to perserve or restore a normal acid-base balance by increasing or decreasing the concentration of hydrogen ions
What is Isotonic?
Equal in concentration of solute molecules
What is Hypertonic?
Having a greater concentration of solute molecules
What is Hypotonic?
Having a lesser concentration of solute molecules
What is Osmotic Gradient?
Difference in concentration between solutions on opposite sides of a semipermable membrane
What is Diffusion?
Movement of molecules thru a membrance from an area of greater concentration to an area of lesser concentration
What is Active Transport?
Movement of a substance from an area of lesser concentration to an area of greater concentration
What is a Facilitated Diffusion?
Diffusion of a substance that requires the assistance of a 'helper' (aka. carrier mediated diffusion)
What is Osmolarity?
Concentration of solute per liter of water
What is Osmotic Pressure?
Pressure exerted by the concentration of solutes on one side of a membrane (tends to 'pull' water from one to the other if hypertonic)
What is Oncotic Force?
Form of osmotic pressure exerted by the large protein particles, present in blood plasma
What is Hydrostatic Pressure?
Blood pressure or force against vessel walls created by heartbeat
What is filtration?
Movement of water out of the plasma across the capillary membrane into the interstitial space
What is pH?
potention of Hydrogen; measure of relative acidity or alkalinity
What is the normal pH range?
7.35 - 7.45
What is Acidosis?
High concentration of hydrogen ions; pH below 7.35
What is Alkalosis?
Low concentration of hydrogen ions; pH above 7.45
What are the '3' mechanisms of Hydrogen Ion removal?
- Bicarbonate Buffer system
- Kidney function
What is the Sodium-Potassium Pump?
Cells of the myocardium need to be negatively charged on the inside. Sodium is on the inside of the cell & actively pumped outside of the cell while potassium ions are pumped into the cell.