Chap 3 - The Cell.txt

  1. What are the Main Elements of the Cell?
    • Cell membrane
    • Cytoplasm
    • Organelles
  2. What is a Cell?
    Basic structural unit of all plants & animals. Membrane enclosing a thick fluid & a nucleus.
  3. What is a cell membrane?
    The outer covering of a cell; aka. plasma membrane
  4. What does Semipermeable?
    Able to allow some, but not all, substances to pass through. Cell membranes are semipermeable.
  5. What is Cytoplasm?
    The thick fluid that fills a cell; aka. protoplasm
  6. What are Organelles?
    Structures that perform specific functions within a cell
  7. What are the '6' most important organelles?
    • Nucleus
    • Endoplasmic reticulum
    • Golgi Apparatus
    • Mitochondria
    • Lysosomes
    • Peroxisomes
  8. What are the '7' functions of cells?
    • Movement
    • Conductivity
    • Metabolic Absorption
    • Secretion
    • Excretion
    • Respiration
    • Reproduction
  9. What is the Nucleus?
    The organelle within a cell that contains the DNA, or genetic material; in the cells of higher organisms, the nucleus is surrounded by a membrane
  10. What is Adenosine Triphosphate (ATP)?
    A high energy compund present in all cells. Energy is stored ATP.
  11. What is the Structural Hierarchy of the Body? Smallest to largest...
    • 1. Cells
    • 2. Tissues
    • 3. Organs
    • 4. Organ Systems
    • 5. Organism
  12. What is a Tissue?
    A group of cells that perform a similar function.
  13. What is Epithelial Tissue?
    The protective tissue that lines internal & external body tissues.
  14. What is muscle tissue?
    Tissue that is capable of contraction when stimulated.
  15. What are the three types of 'muscle' tissue?
    • Cardiac: heart muscle, spontaneous contraction
    • Smooth: intestines & blood vessels, involuntary contraction
    • Skeletal: allows movement, voluntary control
  16. What is Connective Tissue?
    Most abundant body tissue, provides support, connection & insulation (i.e. bones, cartilage, fat)
  17. What is Nerve Tissue?
    Transmits electrical impulses throughout the body
  18. What is an Organ?
    Group of tissues functioning together (i.e heart, brain, liver)
  19. What is an Organ System?
    Group of organs that work together (ie. cardiovascular system - heart, blood vessels, & blood)
  20. What are the '10' Organ Systems?
    • Cardiovascular
    • Respiratory
    • Gastrointestinal
    • Genitourinary
    • Reproductive
    • Nervous
    • Endocrine
    • Lymphatic
    • Muscular
    • Skeletal
  21. What is an Organism?
    The sum of all the cells, tissues, organs, & organ systemsof a living being.
  22. What is Homostasis?
    Natural tendency of the body to maintain a steady & normal internal environment
  23. What is Anatomy?
    Structure of an organism
  24. What is Physiology?
    Functions of an organism; physical & chemical processes of a living thing
  25. What is Metabolism?
    Total changes that take place during physiological processes
  26. Disease effects the body in '2' places?
    • Local: at the site of the illness or injury
    • Systemic: throughout the body
  27. What is the Negative Feedback Loop?
    Body mechanisms that work to reverse/compensate for any pathophysiological process
  28. What '2' body systems are considered the body's control systems?
    • Nervous
    • Endocrine
  29. What is Total Body Water (TBW)?
    The total amount of water in the body at a given time
  30. What is Intracellular fluid (ICF)?
    The fluid inside the body cells
  31. What is Extracellular Fluid (ECF)?
    The fluid outside the body cells; comprised of intracellular fluid & interstitial fluid
  32. What is Intravascular Fluid?
    Fluid within the circulatory system; ie. blood plasma
  33. What is Interstitial Fluid?
    Fluid in body tissues that is outside the cells & outside the vascular system
  34. What is a Solvent?
    Substance that dissolves other substance, forming a solution
  35. What is Dehydration?
    Excessive loss of body fluid
  36. What are some Causes of Dehydration?
    • Vomiting
    • Diarrhea
    • Perspiration
    • Peritonitis
    • Malnutrition
    • Burns
    • Open Wounds
  37. What are some of the clinical signs of a dehydrated patient?
    • Dry mucus membranes
    • Poor skin turgor
    • Excessive thrist
    • Increased pulse
    • Decreased BP
    • Infants: anterior fontanelle sunken, dry diapers, no tears
  38. What is Turgor?
    Normal tension in a cell; the resistance of the skin to deformation (tenting of skin when pinched = dehydration)
  39. What is Overhydration?
    Presence of retention of an abnormally high amt of body fluid
  40. What is an electrolyte?
    Substance in water that separates into electrically charged particles
  41. What is Dissociate?
    To separate or breakdown into parts
  42. What is an Ion?
    Charged particle
  43. What is a Cation?
    Ion with a positive charge
  44. What are the most frequently occurring Cations?
    • Sodium - Na
    • Potassium - K
    • Calcium - Ca
    • Magnesium - Mg
  45. What is an Anion?
    Ion with a negative charge
  46. What are the most frequently occurring Anions?
    • Chloride - Cl
    • Bicarbonate - HCO
    • Phosphate - HPO4
  47. What is a Buffer?
    Substance that tends to perserve or restore a normal acid-base balance by increasing or decreasing the concentration of hydrogen ions
  48. What is Isotonic?
    Equal in concentration of solute molecules
  49. What is Hypertonic?
    Having a greater concentration of solute molecules
  50. What is Hypotonic?
    Having a lesser concentration of solute molecules
  51. What is Osmotic Gradient?
    Difference in concentration between solutions on opposite sides of a semipermable membrane
  52. What is Diffusion?
    Movement of molecules thru a membrance from an area of greater concentration to an area of lesser concentration
  53. What is Active Transport?
    Movement of a substance from an area of lesser concentration to an area of greater concentration
  54. What is a Facilitated Diffusion?
    Diffusion of a substance that requires the assistance of a 'helper' (aka. carrier mediated diffusion)
  55. What is Osmolarity?
    Concentration of solute per liter of water
  56. What is Osmotic Pressure?
    Pressure exerted by the concentration of solutes on one side of a membrane (tends to 'pull' water from one to the other if hypertonic)
  57. What is Oncotic Force?
    Form of osmotic pressure exerted by the large protein particles, present in blood plasma
  58. What is Hydrostatic Pressure?
    Blood pressure or force against vessel walls created by heartbeat
  59. What is filtration?
    Movement of water out of the plasma across the capillary membrane into the interstitial space
  60. What is pH?
    potention of Hydrogen; measure of relative acidity or alkalinity
  61. What is the normal pH range?
    7.35 - 7.45
  62. What is Acidosis?
    High concentration of hydrogen ions; pH below 7.35
  63. What is Alkalosis?
    Low concentration of hydrogen ions; pH above 7.45
  64. What are the '3' mechanisms of Hydrogen Ion removal?
    • Bicarbonate Buffer system
    • Respiration
    • Kidney function
  65. What is the Sodium-Potassium Pump?
    Cells of the myocardium need to be negatively charged on the inside. Sodium is on the inside of the cell & actively pumped outside of the cell while potassium ions are pumped into the cell.
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Chap 3 - The Cell.txt
The Cell