Respiratory system

  1. Respiration
    The process of exchanginggases between the atmosphere and the lungs
  2. Pulmonary ventilation
  3. inspiration
    breathing in
  4. expiration
    breathing out
  5. organs of the respiratiory system
    nostrils, nasal cavity, pharynx, larynx, trachea, bronchial tree, lungs
  6. upper respiratory tract
    Repirsatory organs outside the thorax. responsible for humidifying, warming incoming air. secreating mucus that traps forgein and controlling infection
  7. lower respiratory tract
    respiratory organs inside thorax
  8. nostril
    opening into the nose throught which air passes intot hte nose
  9. spetum
    divides nasal cavity into two. sides of the nasal cavity divided into conchae and meatuses.
  10. pharynx
    common passageway shared by the digestive and respiratory systems (passage for air and food)
  11. larynx (voice box)
    located between the pharynx and the trachea. contains vocal cords: true vocal cords for speech and flase cords for preventing the entrance of food into the larynx during swallowing.
  12. larynx contains 9 cartilages
    3 single epigltic, thyroid(corresponding to the adam's apple) and cricoid.
  13. cricoid cartileges 3 pairs
    arytenoid, corniculate and cuneiform
  14. glottis
    opening between the vocal cords
  15. trachea
    wind pipe -located below larynx. surrounded by c shaped rings of hyaline cartilege to prevent the collapes of trachea during swallowing. the trachea divides to form the bronchial tree.
  16. divisions of the bronchial tree
    primary bronchus, secondary bronchus, tertiary bronchus, brochiole, terminal bronchial, respiratory bronchiole, alveolar duct, alveolar sac, and alveoli. As these tubes get smaller the cartilege rings change to pads and eventually disappears
  17. the respiratory tract is lined with
    pseudostratified ciliated columnar epithelium. As the tubes get smaller, they are replaced by cubodial and eventually to simple squamous
  18. lungs
    Large right lung (3 lobes) left lung (2 lobes)
  19. alveolus
    functional unit of the lungs. this is where exchange of gases take place
  20. respiratory membrane
    made up of two thickness of simple squamous epithelium:simple squamous that lines the alveolus and the onethickness that lines the blood capillaries, both connected by the basement membrane
  21. repsiration physiology
    air moves in and out of the lungs as a result of atmospheric pressure. air moves fro m regions of hight pressure to regions of low pressure
  22. boyle's law
    the volume of a gas is inversley/indirectly proportional to its pressure ( as volume increases, pressure decreases)
  23. Dalton's law
    in a mixture of gases, the partial pressure of a gas is directly proportional to the portion of the indivdual gas in the mixture (in a mixture of gases, like air, the total pressure if the sum of the indivdual partial pressure of the gases in the mixture)
  24. air
    is a mixture of gases: oxygen 21%, carbon dioxide: 0.04%, Nitrogen: 78% other gases less than 1%
  25. during inspiration
    diaphragm muscles contract, volume increase, pressure decrease, external intercostal muscles contracts, rib cage moves up and out. Air moves into the lungs
  26. during expiration
    diaphragm muscles relax, volume decrease, pressure increase, internal intercostal muscles contract and rib cage down and in. AIr moves out of the lungs. Air is moved out mostly as a result of elastic recoil of lung tissue
  27. tidal volume(TV)
    amount of air that is moved into and out of the lungs dunrig normal quiet breathing
  28. inspiratory reserve volume (IRV)
    amount of air that is moved into the lungs during forced inspiration in addition to tidal volume
  29. residual volume(RV)
    amount of air that remains in the lungs at all time
  30. expiratory reserve volume (ERV)
    amount of air that is moved out of the lungs during forced expiration in additiion to tidal volume
  31. vital capacity (VC)
    the maximum amount of air a person can exhale after taking the deepest breath possible. VC= TV+ ERV+ IRV
  32. total lung capacity (TLC)
    the maximum amount of air the lungs can hold. TLC= VC+ RV
  33. non-respiratory air movements
    air movement not used for respiration: sneezing, laughing, yawning, hiccup, coughing, speech, crying
  34. minute ventilation rate (minute respiration volume)
    • amount of air that is moved into the lungs in one minute (TV * BR)
    • TV= 500ml BR= breathing rate (12 breaths per minute)
  35. alveolar ventilation
    the amount of air that actually reaches the alveoli. (TV-150)*BR
  36. dead space
    the amount of air that remains in the airways and don't reach the alevoli
Card Set
Respiratory system
Resipratory system