Harrison Lesson 2

  1. Who were the pilgrims?
    • Separatists who wanted to separate from the Church of England
    • Arrived in America with a royal charter
    • To ensure orderly government, 41 men signed the Mayflower Compact (NOT a constitution)
  2. Mayflower Compact
    • Pledged to "combine ourselves together into a civil body politick"
    • Making decisions based on the will of the people established an important precedent for self government in the British colonies
  3. City Upon A Hill
    • John Winthrop sermon
    • Led a fleet across the Atlantic with Puritans who would found the Massachusetts Bay Colony
    • Expresses the belief the Puritans wanted to create a perfect society based on Christian Values
    • "We shall be as a city upon a hill, the eyes of all people are upon us."
    • Connects to the Puritans idea of a perfect world (exceptionalism)
  4. Exceptionalism
    The Puritans' idea of a perfect world
  5. Puritan Belief and Values
    • Were Calvinists (believed in Pre-Destination) a) people are sinful. b) A few people the "elect" will be saved
    • Were Protestants a)limited church membership to "visible saints" b) believed in hard work (idle hands) c)Rejected the elaborate rituals of the Anglican Church (Church of England)
  6. Key Puritan Facts
    • many were devout
    • often migrated as families
    • lived in compact villages clustered around a meetinghouse
    • discussed local issues
    • Patriarchal (ruled by men)
    • valued education as a means to read and understand the Bible
    • Had a close relationship between church and state
  7. How did religion shape New England society?
    • In their society, religion was the society. If you didn't go to church, you were an outcast.
    • It set a standard for work and attitude
  8. Puritan religious comformity, dissent, and toleration
    • conformity- try to fit in
    • dissent- different for the heck of it
    • toleration-let people do what they want
    • Convinced they were doing God's work, the Puritans emphasized conformity
    • Did NOT tolerate dissent
  9. Roger Williams
    • Argued for a separation of Church and state a) "Forced worship stinks in God's nostrils" b) Called for freedom from coercion (being forced to do something) in matters of faith
    • Banished from Massachusetts
    • Fled to Rhode Island where he founded a colony based on religious freedom
  10. Anne Hutchinson
    • Advocated unorthodox religious views that challenged Puritan leaders
    • Claimed to have direct revalations from God
    • Questioned the established religious doctrines and the role of women in Puritan society
    • Banished to Rhode Island
  11. Puritan Religious Toleration
    • The Puritans could not stamp out religious dissent
    • Religious intolerationn in Massachusetts promoted religious toleration in Rhode Island
  12. The Halfway Covenant
    • The first generation of Puritans were pious, zealous, adherants dedicated to building a society based on a strict moral code
    • As they became more prosperous, the original mission became less important through each generation
    • Designed to respond to the decline of religious zeal in subsequent generations. a) eased the requirements for church membership by allowing the baptism of children of parents who could not prove they were the "elect"
  13. Puritan Relation With Indians
    • approx 100,000 Native Americans in New England
    • In the beginning, the coastal tribes taught the Puritans how to plant corn and exchanged goods
    • Smallpox epidemics decimated the Nat Am population by 80%
    • Surviving leaders realised the English intended to drive them to ruin
    • Cheif Metacomb (King Phillip) a) attacked settlements across Massachusetts b) Killed many colonists before being killed by English
  14. What are the Middle Colonies? (Breadbasket Colonies)
    New York, Pennsylvania, Delaware, New Jersey
  15. Middle Colonies description
    • moderate winters
    • fertile soil
    • fine harbors
    • longer growing seasons than New England
    • Rivers made the fur trade lucrative (Hudson, Delaware, Susquehanna)
  16. The Dutch & New Netherland
    • The Dutch West Indian Company
    • Avoided conflict with Native Americans by not establishing large settlements
    • Located inbetween English colonies
    • New Amsterdam was one of the best natural harbors on the East coast
    • King Charles II of England sent a fleet that took the colony without firing a shot
    • Renamed in honor of James, the Duke of York
  17. Pennsylvania
    • "Penn's Woods"
    • Founded by William Penn as a refuge for Quakers
    • Penn's "Holy Experiment"
    • Colony based on Quakers beliefs
    • All people are equal
    • religious toleration
    • greater role for women
    • friendly relations with Indians
    • economically prosperous
  18. Great Awakening
    2 men associated with it
    • Religious revival starting in New England that spread to rest of colonies
    • The cause was loss of Puritan values
    • John Edwards is associated a) provided spark for revival b)"Sinners in the Hands of An Angry God"
    • George Whitefield a) preached emotional sermons to enthrall crowds across the colonies b)converts were motivated by a fear of divine justice
    • Old Light vs New Light
    • Undermined the authority of establised Churches
    • Split Presbytarian and Congregational Churches (SCHISM)
    • Promoted religious toleration and acceptance
    • Encouraged missionary work
    • increased female involvement in church
    • promoted work of itinerant preachers
    • led to New Light colleges like Princeton, Dartmouth, Brown, Columbia, Rutgers
  19. Mercantilism
    • A country can acquire wealth by having a favorable balance of trade
    • Colonies existed to provide raw materials to the home country and to purchase finished goods from the home country
    • ***Mercantilism impeded the growth of Colonial manufactoring
    • exports>imports=GOOD
  20. Navigation Acts
    • Parliament passed the Navigation Acts to enforce mercantilist policies
    • required all goods be shipped from the colonies to England and all goods flowing to and from the colonies be on English vessels
    • were not rigorously enforced prior to 1763 (SALUTORY NEGLECT)
  21. Colonial Authors
    • Ben Franklin- Poor Richard's Almanac
    • Anne Bradstreet- first published American poet
    • Phillis Wheatley- first notable Afr American poet
  22. Women In Colonial Society
    • Married women had no legal identity
    • could not vote
    • can't be minister (even though women are majority of church)
  23. New France
    • Canada
    • Worked closely with Huron Tribe
    • Sparsely populated
    • had thriving fur trade
    • coureurs de bois (runners of the woods)
  24. King William's War
    • 1689-1697
    • Named after King William (Glorious Rev)
    • Britain VS France in North America
    • War to control fur trade
  25. Queen Anne's War
    • 1702-1713
    • War of Spanish succession
    • Britain VS France in the North
    • Britain VS Spanish in the South
  26. War of Jenkin's Ear
    • 1739
    • British VS Spain in North America
    • Minor Conflict
    • Jenkins actually kept the ear
  27. King George's War
    • War of Austrian succession
    • Britain VS France in the North
    • Britain VS Spain in the South
  28. French and Indian War
    • Also known as Seven Years War
    • Began in America
    • Expanded from the Ohio River Valley to the largets conflict the world had ever seen. Rich in furry animals = $$$$ British and French attempt to acquire it
    • Britain & Prussia VS Spain, Austria, & Russia
  29. Fort Duquesne
    • in Pittsburgh
    • Built by French
  30. Both the ____ and ____ made religious conversion a major focus.
    French & Spanish
  31. The _____ were ale to export vast amounts of precious metals from their colonies.
  32. Early _____ explorers engaged intisively in the fur trade.
  33. Joilet
    Mississippi River
  34. Marquette
    found Michigan's first European settlement
  35. Cartier
    • areas of Canada
    • Gulf of Sait Lawrence
  36. La Salle
    Great Lakes, Missippi River, Gulf of Mexico
  37. Champlain
    • New France
    • Quebec City
  38. Ferdinand Magellan
    First European to circumnavigate the world
  39. John Peter Zenger
    • Printer/Journalist from New York who was acquitted on charges of libel in 1753
    • Establishes a precedent for freedom of press
  40. Middle Passage
    carried slaves to the New World
  41. Georgia
    founded by James Oglethorpe as a colony for debtors and to serve as a burden against the Spanish
  42. Proprietary Colonies
    • Colonies' founders maintained control over the governorship and many of the laws directly
    • ex. Maryland & Pennsylvania
  43. Royal Colonies
    • Controlled by the king, who appointed the governor
    • ex. North Carolina & New Jersey
  44. Corporate Colonies
    • Self governing
    • ex. Rhode Island & Connecticut
  45. Piedmont
    home to poor farmers & indentured servants
  46. Tidewater (coastal plain)
    Wealthy planters
  47. House of Burgesses
    • Virginia
    • 22 representatives
    • all laws could be vetoed by governor
    • only land owning males could vote
    • powers were limited after Virginia became a royal colony
    • did NOT elect the governor
  48. Pequot War
    • 1637
    • The Pequot Tribe fought against the English in Connecticut
    • They were defeated by the English with the help of other tribes
  49. King Phillip's War
    • 1675
    • The Wampanoag tribe led by Metacount fought against the British in New England
    • Settlers won in 1678
    • Native Americans would no longer me a major factor in New England
  50. William Pitt
    led British in F & I War
  51. Why is The Battle Of Quebec important to American history?
    In the Battle of Quebec, the British overthrew the French in Montreal, leading to the French being thrown out of any kind of control in North America. All of this coming to the main answer: The American colonist wondering why they should follow British rule anymore
Card Set
Harrison Lesson 2
F & I War