1. Matter
    anything that takes up space and has weight; composed of elements
  2. Elements
    composed of chemically identical atoms
  3. Bulk (major) Elements
    required by the body in large amounts
  4. Trace Elements
    required by the body in small amounts
  5. Atoms
    smallest particles of an element; composed of subatomic particles
  6. Proton
    carries a single positive charge
  7. Neutron
    carries no electrical charge
  8. Electron
    carries a single negative charge
  9. Necleus
    • -central part of atom
    • -composed of protons and neutrons
    • -eletrons move around the neucleus
  10. Atomic Number
    • -number of protons in the nucleus of one atom
    • -each element has a unique atomic number
    • -equals the number of electrons in the atom
  11. Atomic Weight
    • -number of protons plus the number of neutrons in one atom
    • -electrons do not contribute to the weight of the atom
  12. Isotopes
    atoms with the same atomic numbers but with different atomic weights

    Example: Oxygen (O16, O17, O18)
  13. Molecule
    particle formed when two or more atoms chemically combine
  14. Compound
    particle (molecule) formed when two or more atoms of different elements chemically combine
  15. Molecular Formulas
    depict the elements present and the number of each atom present in the molecule
  16. Ion
    • -an atom that gain or loses electrons to become stable
    • -an electrically charged atom
  17. Cation
    -a postively charged ion formed when an atom loses electrons
  18. Anion
    a negatively charged ion formed when an atom gains electrons
  19. Ionic bond
    an attraction between cation and an anion; formed when electrons are transferred from one atom to another atom
  20. Covalent Bond
    formed when atoms share electrons
  21. Structural Formulas
    show how atoms bond and are arranged in various molecules
  22. Polar Molecule
    • -molecule with a slightly negative end and a slightly positve end
    • -results when electrons are not shared equally in covalent bonds
    • -water is important in polar molecule
  23. Hydrogen Bond
    a weak attration between the postive end of one polar molecule and the negative end of another polar molecule
  24. Chemical Reactions
    occur when chemical bonds form or break among atoms, ions, or molecules
  25. Reactants
    the starting material of the reaction- the atoms, ions, or molecules
  26. Products
    substances formed at the end of the chemical reaction
  27. Synthesis Reaction
    more complex chemical structure is formed
  28. Decomposition Reaction
    chemical bonds are broken to form a simpler chemical structure
  29. Exchange Reaction
    chemical bonds are broken and bonds are formed
  30. Reversible Reaction
    the product can change back to the reactants
  31. Electrolytes
    substances that release ions in water
  32. Acids
    electolytes that dissociate release hydrogen ions in water
  33. Bases
    electrolytes that release ions that can combine with hydogen ions
  34. Salts
    electrolytes formed by the reaction between an acid and a base
  35. pH Scale
    indicates the concentration of hydrogen ions in solution
  36. Water
    • -most abundent compound in living material
    • -two-thirds of the weight of an adult human
    • -major component of all body fluids
    • -medium for most metabolic reactions
    • -important role in transporting chemicals in the body
    • -absorbs and transports heat
  37. Oxygen
    used by orgenelles to release energy from nutrients in order to drive cell's metabolic activities; neccessary for survival
  38. Carbon Dioxide
    waste product released durinf metabolic reactions; must be removed from the body
  39. Carbohydrates
    • -provide energy to cells
    • -supply materials to build cell structures
    • -water soluble
  40. Simple Carbohydrates (sugars)
    glucose, fructose, sucrose, and lactose

    (can be broken down)
  41. Complex Carbohydrates
    glycogen, cellulose

    (Cannot be broken down)
  42. Lipids
    • -Soluble in organic solvents; insoluble in water
    • -most common- fats (triglycerides)
Card Set
Anatomy and Physiology 1