1. Rhetoric
    principles governing the art of writing effectively, eloquently, and persuasively
  2. Logos
    appeal of a text based on the logical structure of its argument
  3. Ethos
    appeal of a text to the credibility and character of the speaker, writer, or narrator
  4. Pathos
    appeal of a text to the emotions or interests of the audience
  5. Arrangement
    organization/ structure/ form the placement of ideas for effect
  6. Tropes
    meaning is altered from the usual or expected
  7. Pun
    a play on words the bicycle was two-tired, so it could not stand up
  8. Extended metaphor
    a metaphor developed at great length, occurring frequently in or throughout a work
  9. Simile
    an explicit comparison, normally using like, as, than or if
  10. Metaphor
    a figure of speech using implied comparison of seemingly unlike things or the substitution of one for the other, suggesting some similarity
  11. Irony
    the contrast between what is stated explicitly and what is really meant; the difference between what appears to be and what actually is true. Irony is used for many reasons, but frequently, it's used to create poignancy or humor.
  12. Verbal irony
    the words literally state the opposite of the writer's or speaker's true meaning
  13. Situational irony
    events turn out the opposite of what was expected. What the characters and readers think ought to happen does not actually happen
  14. Dramatic irony
    facts or events are unknown to a character in a play or piece of fiction but are known to the reader, audience, or other characters in the work.
  15. Hyperbole
    a figure of speech using deliberate exaggeration or overstatement
  16. Synecdoche
    a part of something used to refer to the whole for example, 50 head of cattle referring to 50 complete animals 30 sails on the horizon
  17. Metonymy
    an entity referred to by one of its attributes or associationsfor example, The admissions office claims applications have risen.The White House spoke today.
  18. Oxymoron
    juxtaposed words with seemingly contradictory meanings for example, "jumbo shrimp" "Microsoft Works"
  19. Paradox
    • a statement that seems untrue on the surface but is true nonetheless
    • Onomatopoeia
    • a literary device in which the sound of a word is related to its meaning
  20. Apostrophe
    a figure of speech that directly addresses an absent or imaginary person or personified abstraction
  21. Euphemism
    a more agreeable or less offensive substitute for generally unpleasant words or concepts
  22. Schemes
    arrangement of ideas, words, or phrases that is stylistically effective
  23. Parallelism
    a set of similarly structured words, phrases, or clauses that appears in a sentence or paragraph
  24. Chiasmus
    inverted parallelism; two clauses are related to each other through a reversal of terms. Purpose is to make a larger point or to provide balance or order You forget what you want to remember, and you remember what you want to forget. -The Road

    I had a teacher I liked who used to say good fiction's job was to comfort the disturbed and disturb the comfortable. -David Foster Wallace

    "I am stuck on Band-Aid brand 'cause Band-Aid's stuck on me." -Band Aid commercial
  25. Climax
    arrangement of words, phrases, or clauses in order of increasing number of importance
  26. Antithesis
    juxtaposition of contrasting words or ideas, often in parallel structure
  27. Syntax
    order of words in a sentence
  28. Anaphora
    repetition of a group of words at the beginning of successive clauses "I have a dream"
  29. Ad hominem argument
    this is an argument that appeals to emotion rather than reason, to feeling rather than intellect "You can't believe Jack when he says the proposed policy would help the economy. He doesn't even have a job."
  30. Allegory
    device using character or story elements symbolically to represent an abstraction in addition to the literal meaning
  31. Alliteration
    repetition of sounds, especially consonant sounds in two or more neighboring words
  32. Allusion
    direct or indirect reference to something that is presumably common known, such as an event, book, myth, place or work of art
  33. Ambiguity
    multiple meanings, either intentional or unintentional, of a word, phrase, sentence or passage
  34. Analogy
    • similarity or comparison between two different things or the relationship between them
    • Antecedent
    • the word, phrase, or clause referred to by a pronoun
  35. Aphorism
    terse statement of known authorship that expresses a general truth or moral principle
  36. Atmosphere
    emotional mood created by the entirety of literary work, established partly by the setting and partly by the author's choice of objects that are described
  37. Caricature
    representation, especially pictorial or literary, in which the subject's distinctive features or peculiarities are deliberately exaggerated to produce a comic or grotesque effect
  38. Clause
    a grammatical unit that contains both a subject and a verb
  39. Colloquialism
    slang or informality in speech or writing. Not generally acceptable for formal writing, colloquialisms give work a conversational, familiar tone, includes local or regional dialects
  40. Conceit
    a fanciful expression, usually in the form of an extended metaphor or surprising analogy between seemingly dissimilar objects the lady is a sun whose beauty and virtue shine on her lover from a distance
  41. Connotation
    nonliteral, associative meaning of a word; the implied, suggested meaning
  42. Diction
    writer's word choice
  43. Denotation
    strict, literal dictionary definition
  44. Didactic
    primary aim of teaching or instructing, especially the teaching of moral or ethical principles
  45. Figurative language
    writing or speech that is not intended to carry literal meaning and is usually meant to be imaginative and vivid
  46. Figure of speech
    a device used to produce figurative language
  47. Generic conventions
    describes traditions for each genre
  48. Genre
    major category into which a literary work fits
  49. Homily
    sermon; more informally, can include any serious talk, speech or lecture involving moral or spiritual advice
  50. Imagery
    sensory details or figurative language used to describe, arouse emotion or represent abstractions
  51. Inference/ infer
    to draw a reasonable conclusion from the information presented
  52. Invective
    emotionally violent, verbal denunciation or attack using strong, abusive language
  53. Irony/ironic
    contrast between what is stated explicitly and what is really meant
  54. Juxtaposition
    placing dissimilar items, descriptions, or ideas close together or side by side, especially for comparison or contrast
  55. Loose sentence
    type of sentence in which the main idea (independent clause) comes first, followed by dependent grammatical unit such as clause and phrases.
  56. Mood
    first meaning is grammatical and deals with verbal units and a speaker's attitude. The second meaning is literary, meaning the prevailing atmosphere or emotional aura of a work. Setting, tone, and events can affect the mood
  57. Narrative
    telling of a story or an account of an event or series of events
  58. Parody
    work that closely imitates the style or content of another with the specific aim of comic effect and/or ridicule
  59. Pedantic
    adjective that describes words, phrases, or general tone that is overly scholarly, academic or bookish
  60. Periodic sentence
    a sentence that presents its central meaning in a main clause at the end. This independent clause is preceded by a phrase or clause that cannot stand alone.
  61. Personification
    author presents or describes concepts, animals, inanimate objects by endowing them with human attributes or emotions.
  62. Point of view
    perspective from which a story is told
  63. Predicate adjectives
    one type of subject complement-an adjective, group of adjectives or adjective clause that follows a linking verb. It is in the predicate of the sentence, and modifies or describes the subject
  64. Predicate nominative
    a second type or subject complement-a noun, group of nouns or noun clause that renames the subject. It, like the predicate adjective, follows a linking verb and is located in the predicate of the sentence
  65. Prose
    nonfiction or fiction; genre of writing
  66. Repetition
    duplication, either exact or approximate, of any element of language
  67. Rhetorical appeal
    persuasive device by which a writer tries to sway the audience's attention and response to any given work
  68. Sarcasm
    bitter, caustic language that is meant to hurt or ridicule someone or something
  69. Satire
    work that targets human vices and follies, or social institutions and conventions for reform or ridicule
  70. Style
    diction, syntax, figurative language
  71. Subject complement
    word or accompanying phrases or clause that follows a linking verb and complements or completes the subject of the sentence by either 1) renaming it or (2) describing it (appositive)
  72. Subordinate clause
    this word group contains both a subject and verb (plus any accompanying elements)
  73. Syllogism
    a deductive system of formal logic that presents two premises-the first one called "major" and the second "minor-"that inevitably lead to a sound conclusion
  74. Symbol/symbolism
    represents or stands for something else
  75. Syntax
    way author chooses to join words, phrases, clauses, and sentences; similar to diction but it is a group of words
  76. Theme
    central idea or message of a work, insight into life
  77. Thesis
    sentence or group of sentences that directly expresses the author's opinion, purpose, meaning or proposition
  78. Tone
    similar to mood, author's attitude toward his or her material, the audience or both
  79. Transition
    word or phrase that links different ideas
  80. Understatement
    ironic minimizing of fact, understatement presents something less significant than it is.
  81. Litotes
    figure of speech by which an affirmation is made indirectly by denying its opposite. It uses understatement for emphasis, frequently with a negative assertion. "It's not so bad" "This meat isn't awful"
  82. Meiosis
    belittling; rhetorical figure by which something is referred to in terms less important than it really deserves. It describes something that is very impressive with simplicity. "It's just a flesh wound!" (From the Black Knight in Monty Python and the Holy Grail, after having his armchopped off.)
  83. Wit
    intellectually amusing language that surprises and delights
  84. Attitude
    writer's intellectual position or emotion regarding the subject of the writing
  85. Antecedent consequence relationship
    the relationship expressed; by "if"..."then" reasoning.Ffor example, "If the Cubs sign Greg Maddux, then they will win the National League Pennant."
Card Set
Rhetorical terms AP Language and Composition