How do plants get their food?
What do the cell walls of plants contain?
T/F Plants are multicallular with specilization
What do the specialized cells form?
Tissues and organs
Where do most plants live?
What type of cells do plants have?
What special organells do plants have for photosynthesis?
What kind of clorophyll do plants have?
A & B
T/F The ancestors of land plants were green algae
What are the 5 adaptations plants made to live on land?
O loss Ancorage
What do plants have to keep from losing water?
What is a cuticle?
A wax like covering
What 2 kinds of tubes make up the vascular system?
What is the xylem?
They carry water
What is the pholem?
The tube that carries food
What do large plants have as support tissues?
What are the hole for gas exchange called?
What are the 2 basic kinds of plants?
Vascular and Non vascular
What do non vascular plants lack?
A vascular system
What does not having a vascular system limit?
Size and habitat
What parts do non vascular plants have that are similar to vascular plants?
Stem, Leaf and root like parts
What do non vascular plants need for reproduction?
What are examples of non vascular plants? (3)
What are examples of vascular plants? (3)
Ferns and relatives
What are gymnosperms?
What are angiosperms?
What phylum does moss belong to?
What time of year does moss produce gametes?
What does moss need to reproduce?
T/F Mosses have true parts
How does water and food move in nonvascular plant?
Where do the spores form in moss?
What are the original spores in the capsule of mosses?
Spore Mother Cells
What process do the spore mother cells go through to make spores?
Are spore mother cells haploid or diploid?
What kind of spores does moss have?
What is homospores?
A plant only having one type of spores
What is "Peat Moss" also called?
What 3 things is peat moss used for?
Why is peat moss used as mulch?
It holds water
In the old days what did they do the the moss and what did they use it for?
Cut it into blocks and burned it
What is coal?
Heated and pressurized dead plants
What generation of the moss is seen year round?
What is the gametophyte generation of the moss also called?
What is the job of the leaf like parts of the leafy stem?
What does the stem like part of the leafy stem do?
What do the rhizoids of the leafy stem do?
Anchor the moss to the ground
Absorbs water and minerals
What is the male reproductive part of the moss?
What does the antheridium produce?
T/F the antheridium is multicellular
What is the female reproductive part of the moss called?
What does the archegonium produce in the moss plants?
When does moss reproduce?
Summer or spring
Why does moss reproduce in the summer and spring?
Because it needs water (rain) to reproduce
What do the sperm have to make the moss need water to reproduce?
What occurs when the sperm and egg of the moss unite?
What is the united egg and sperm called?
What is at the top of the sporophyte generation of the moss?
What does the capsule produce in moss?
What is the stem like structure of the sporophyte generation that hold the capsule in the air? (Moss)
what is the lid of the capsule called?
What happens to the spores after they are released and land on moist soil?
What is a germinated spore called?
What ancestory does the protonema show?
What are the fuzzes on the protonema?
New leafy stems
What generation of the ferns is dominant?
What are the leaf like structures of the fern and what do they do?
What is the underground, horizontal stem of the ferns?
What are the spots under the leafs of ferns? (plural and singular)
What do the sori contain?
What do the sporangium produce?
What do the spores germinate into?
What is the characteristic shape of a prothallus?
How big is the prothallus?
1/4 to 1/2 inch
What generation is the prothallus?
T/F the prothallus can be male, female, or both.
The sperm have flagellum. What do ferns need to reproduce?
What are the root like structures on the prothallus?
After the egg and sperm fertilize, what do they form?
What does the zygote of the fern turn into?
What are the curled up leaves called of a fern?
What is the liverwart also called?
What phylum does liverwart belong to?
What generation is the thallus of the liverwart?
What does the thallus look like?
What does the thallus of the liverwart do?
What is the fuzz at at the bottom of the liverwart? What do they do?
Anchor the plant
Where do liverwars make eggs?
What does the archegonial disk look like?
Where do the liverwarts make sperm?
What do liverwart need to reproduce?
what method does liverwart use to reproduce?
What is the gemma cup used for?
Asexual reproduction by fragmentation
What does the capsule of the liverwart produce?
What generation is the capsule?
What produces sperm in the liverwarts?
What are the 3 non vascular phylums? An example for each.
What are hornwarts?
Their body is a thallus with rhizoids and they need water to reproduce
What generation is dominant in vascular plants?
T/F Vascular plants have true parts?
What tube cells do they have that doesn't limit them in size or habitat?
T/F All vascular plants don't need water to reproduce
What phylum is whisk ferns?
Where do whisk ferns live?
T/F Whisk ferns have sori
What phylum is Ground pine or club moss?
What phylum is Horsetails/Equisetum/Scouring Rushes?
Where is a common place for equisetum to grow?
Railroad track where the water lays
How tall are horsetails?
What is the structure called where the stem branches?
What is in the scouring rushes cell wall?
What were horsetails used for in the olden days?
What are the 2 most common types of seed vascular plants?
What generations is dominant in the seed vascular plants?
T/F seed vascular plants need water for repro
What are the 3 characteristics of the Angiosperms?
What does gymno mean?
What are the 3 characteristics of gymnosperms?
What are the 3 parts to a seed?
What phylum produces cones?
What are the cones to the pine tree?
The reproductive unit
What are 6 examples of evergreens?
What are Sequoias also known as?
Red Wood Trees
What does it mean to be an evergreen?
They dont lose all their leaves at once
What phylum are the dominant gymnosperms?
Where do evergreens mostly live?
T/F all conifers are evergreens
T/F there aren't any decidious conifers
What is a decidious tree?
They lose all their leave at once
What generation of the evergreen do you see all year round?
What are the 2 types of spores in conifers?
What are the spores called in conifers because they have 2 kinds of spores?
T/F Conifers are the most primitive of all seed plants
What kind of wood do conifers produce?
Why are conifers soft wood?
Because their xylems are made of Trachids
Why do trachids make the conifers soft wood?
Because they aren't efficient
What kind of wood do angiosperms give us?
What are the xylems made of in angiosperms?
What are the 2 types of leaves conifers can have?
What do cnifers give us?
Used to frame houses
made of pulp from the tree
What is rosin?
A powder to make things not slip
What is terpentine used for?
To clean paint brushes
Can we eat conifers? Why or why not?
Many have poisons
What are the 2 types of cones conifers have?
Which cone of the conifer is female?
Which cones of the conifers are the woody cones?
Where do we see seed cones?
Inside the tree
What colors do seed cones go from?
Green -> Brown
What position do seed cones start out as and what happens to them as they mature?
They open up
How long do seed cones take to mature?
What becomes the seed of the conifers? (2 names)
What is the chromosone number of the ovule?
what does the megasporangium contain?
Megaspore mother cells
What process do the megaspore mother cells go through to produce megaspores? How many does it produce?
What is the chromosome number of the megaspores?
What happens to 3 of the megaspores?
What happens to the mega spore that lives?
It goes through mitosis and becomes the female megagametophyte
What is the chromosome number of the female megagametophyte?
What is the male cone of conifers called?
Where are pollen cones found?
At the end of the branches
What does the microsporangium contain? What procees do they go through? What does it result in?
Microspore mother cells
What is the chromosome number of microspores?
What do the microspores become?
What do the microspores contain?
What are the pollen grains called when they contain a sperm?
What is pollination?
The movement of pollen throught the air to the seed cone
What phylum contains cycads?
How do cycads reproduce?
T/F cycads can grown in PA
What organism is in the phylum ginkgophyta?
Can ginko trees grow in PA?
Whats another name for the ginko tree?
What distinct feature do ginko trees have?
Fan shaped leaves
what genders can ginko trees be?
Male or female
What phylum contains gnetum?
What is gnetum?
A tropical vine
Where does the welwicheria grow?
The african Savanna
During the dry season what does the welwicheria looks like?
During the wet season what does the welwicheria look like?
Big green leaves
T/F the welwicheria grows close to the ground
What green bush grows on the sides of the Grand Canyon?
What is the phylum of the angiosperms?
What are the 2 classes of angiosperms?
What kind of veins do monocots have?
How many seed leaves do monocots have?
What kind of veins do dicots have?
How many seed leaves do dicots have?
What is special about the pollenation of angiosperms?
They can be polleniated by insects
Angiosperms coevolved with what?
Whats does coevolved mean?
Both changed for their benefit
What was the fruit of the bean seed originally?
Ovary of the flower
What is the pedicel?
The stem of the fruit of the angiosperm
What carries the food and water to the seed?
What was the seed originally?
Where does the pollen tube the ovule at?
Where does the food enter the ovule?
What becomes the embryo plant?
the egg and sperm
What is the seed coat called?
What is the future leaves of the embryo plant called?
What are the future roots of the embryo plant?
What part of the seed stores starch?
What is the part of the embryo plant that is above where it attaches to the cotyledon?
What is the part of the embryo plant that is below where it attaches to the cotyledon?
What willthe hypocotyl become?
What is the male flower of the corn called?
What is the female flower of the corn called?
What is are the base of the corn kernal where it attaches to the ear?
What part of the flower is the cob?
What are the greenish-white leave surrounding the ear?
The petals and sepals
T/F Corn is a fruit called a grain
What was the silk of the corn at one time?
The style and stigma of the ovary
Where does a corn kernal store its food?
How many cotyledons does a coren seed have?
What is the chromosone number of the microsporangium?
What is found in the anther?
What does the microsporangium make?
What are located in the microsporangium originally? What is their chromosome number?
Microspore mother cells 2N
What process does the microspore mother cells go through? What is the result?
Microspores go through Mitosis to become what? (2 names)
What are the 2 nuclei of the pollen called?
What is the tube nucleus' job?
Controlling the growth of the pollen tube
What is the job of the generative nuleus?
To divide into 2 sperm
What is found in the ovary?
T/F there can be more than one microsporangium in the ovary
What is another name for the megasporangium?
What is the chromosome number of the megasporangium?
What is foud within the megasporangium initially? What is their chromosome number?
Megaspore Mother Cells 2N
What process do megaspores result from? What is their chromosome number?
How many megasopres are formed? How many live?
What happens to the one megaspore that lives? What does it become?
It reproduces by mitosis
What is the chromosome number of the female megagametophyte?
What is another name for the female megagametophyte
T/F The pistil is homosporous
What are the 4 types of cells in the Embryosac?
What is the micropyle?
The opening for the pollen tube into the embryo sac
What does the zygote grow into in seed formation? What is its chromosome number?
Embryo plant 2N
What 3 things combine to make the endosperm?
2 Polar cells
What is the chromosome number of the endosperm? What is the special name for this?
How does the seed coat form?
The ovule hardens
What kind of food do dicots store?
What kind of food do monocots store?
What are the layers in the ovule wall?
What will the ovary become?
What is fruit made of?
Usually an enlarged ovary
What must fruit contain to truly be a fruit?
What are the 2 kinds of fruits?
What are the 2 characteristics of fleshy fruits?
What are the 3 characteristics of dry fruits?
T/F We eat dry fruits
What are the 3 kinds of fleshy fruits?
Aggregates / Acessory
What are 3 kinds of simple friuts?
What are 2 examples of Drupes?
What are 3 examples of berries?
What are 2 examples of pomes?
What are 2 examples of aggregate fruits?
What are 2 examples of a multiple friut?
What are the 2 main types of dry fruits?
What does dehiscent mean?
Seeds pop out
What does indehiscent mean?
Doesn't split open
What are 3 types of dry dehiscent fruits?
Legumes / Pods
What are 3 examples of a legume?
What is an example of a follicle?
What are 3 examples of capsules?
WHat are the 3 types of dry indehiscent fruits?
What is an example of a samara?
What are 3 examples of grains?
What are 3 examples of nuts?
What is asexual reproduction also called?
What are the 4 types of natural asexual reproduction?
What are rhizomes?
Fat underground stems
What reproduces by rhizomes?
What are stolons?
Skinny underground stems
What reproduces by stolons?
What are runners?
What reproduces by runners?
What is tip layering?
When a branch gets too heavy and touches the ground and formes new roots
What reproduces by tip layering?
What are the 3 types of man influenced asexual reproduction?
What is cutting?
Cut off part of the stem and plant it in a new pot
What is cutting used mostly on?
What is layering?
Put soil at the base of the plant and pull out the stems that formed new roots
What do we use layering on?
What is grafting?
Taking a branch from the desired tree and inserting it into a young tree
What is grafting used on?
Red Delicious Apples
What are the 2 types of flowers?
What makes a flower perfect?
They have both male and female parts in the same flower
What is and example of a perfect flower?
What makes a flower imperfect?
Have only male of only female parts on one flower
What is an example of an imperfect flower?
The tassel on corn
What are the 2 types of plants?
What makes a plant monoecious?
They have both male and female parts on the same plant
What are 3 examples of monoecious plants?
What amkes a plant diecious?
The plants have seperate male and female plants
What are 2 examples of diecious plants?
What are 2 types of flowers?
What makes a flower complete?
They have all the flower parts
What is an example of a complete flower?
What is an incomplete flower?
They are missing some whorls
What is an example of an incomplete flower?
Ear of corn is missing Stamens
How many flower parts do monocots have?
3s or multiples of 3
how many flower parts do dicots have?
4s or 5s or multiples of 4 or 5
What is the coleoptile?
Covers and protects the epicotyl of the corn embryo plant as it grows
What is the growth of a seed called?
What is the ability of a seed to grow called?
What is seed dormancy?
Some seeds need to be exposed to cold temperatures before they can grow
What 3 elements affect seed growth?
What is the flower's main job?
What are flowers before they bloom?
What are the rings of flower parts?
What is all the speals together called?
What is at the base of the petal that makes nectar and scents?
What is nectar?
What 2 parts of the flower are not essential for reproduction?
What is all the petals together?
What is the female reproductive structure in a flower?
What are the 3 parts of the pistil?
What is the jof of the stigma?
What is the jof of the style?
What is the jof of the ovary?
What is the male reproductive part of a flower?
What are the 2 parts of a stamen?
What is the jof of the anther?
What does the filament contain?
What are petals?
Modified leaves that attract insects
What will the ovules become?
What are the sepals?
Unessential modified green leaves that protect the bud
What is the receptacle?
Where all the whorls attach
What is the pedicel?
Made of vascular tissue so it brings food to the flower
What 2 structures form from double fertilization?
What is the jof of the endosperm?
Store starch for the seed
Chapter 28 & 30