Kingdom Plantae

  1. How do plants get their food?
  2. What do the cell walls of plants contain?
  3. T/F Plants are multicallular with specilization
  4. What do the specialized cells form?
    Tissues and organs
  5. Where do most plants live?
    On land
  6. What type of cells do plants have?
  7. What special organells do plants have for photosynthesis?
  8. What kind of clorophyll do plants have?
    A & B
  9. T/F The ancestors of land plants were green algae
  10. What are the 5 adaptations plants made to live on land?
    • Prevent H2O loss Ancorage
    • Vascular System
    • Support Tissue
      Gas Exchange
  11. What do plants have to keep from losing water?
  12. What is a cuticle?
    A wax like covering
  13. What 2 kinds of tubes make up the vascular system?
    • Xylem
    • Pholem
  14. What is the xylem?
    They carry water
  15. What is the pholem?
    The tube that carries food
  16. What do large plants have as support tissues?
  17. What are the hole for gas exchange called?
  18. What are the 2 basic kinds of plants?
    Vascular and Non vascular
  19. What do non vascular plants lack?
    A vascular system
  20. What does not having a vascular system limit?
    Size and habitat
  21. What parts do non vascular plants have that are similar to vascular plants?
    Stem, Leaf and root like parts
  22. What do non vascular plants need for reproduction?
  23. What are examples of non vascular plants? (3)
    • Mosses
    • Hornwarts
    • Liverwarts
  24. What are examples of vascular plants? (3)
    • Ferns and relatives
    • Gymnosperms
    • Angiosperms
  25. What are gymnosperms?
  26. What are angiosperms?
    Flowering plants
  27. What phylum does moss belong to?
  28. What time of year does moss produce gametes?
  29. What does moss need to reproduce?
  30. T/F Mosses have true parts
  31. How does water and food move in nonvascular plant?
  32. Where do the spores form in moss?
  33. What are the original spores in the capsule of mosses?
    Spore Mother Cells
  34. What process do the spore mother cells go through to make spores?
  35. Are spore mother cells haploid or diploid?
  36. What kind of spores does moss have?
  37. What is homospores?
    A plant only having one type of spores
  38. What is "Peat Moss" also called?
    Spagnum Moss
  39. What 3 things is peat moss used for?
    • Fuel
    • Fertilizer
    • Mulch
  40. Why is peat moss used as mulch?
    It holds water
  41. In the old days what did they do the the moss and what did they use it for?
    Cut it into blocks and burned it
  42. What is coal?
    Heated and pressurized dead plants
  43. What generation of the moss is seen year round?
  44. What is the gametophyte generation of the moss also called?
    Leafy stem
  45. What is the job of the leaf like parts of the leafy stem?
  46. What does the stem like part of the leafy stem do?
  47. What do the rhizoids of the leafy stem do?
    • Anchor the moss to the ground
    • Absorbs water and minerals
  48. What is the male reproductive part of the moss?
  49. What does the antheridium produce?
  50. T/F the antheridium is multicellular
  51. What is the female reproductive part of the moss called?
  52. What does the archegonium produce in the moss plants?
  53. When does moss reproduce?
    Summer or spring
  54. Why does moss reproduce in the summer and spring?
    Because it needs water (rain) to reproduce
  55. What do the sperm have to make the moss need water to reproduce?
  56. What occurs when the sperm and egg of the moss unite?
  57. What is the united egg and sperm called?
  58. What is at the top of the sporophyte generation of the moss?
  59. What does the capsule produce in moss?
  60. What is the stem like structure of the sporophyte generation that hold the capsule in the air? (Moss)
  61. what is the lid of the capsule called?
  62. What happens to the spores after they are released and land on moist soil?
    They germinate
  63. What is a germinated spore called?
  64. What ancestory does the protonema show?
  65. What are the fuzzes on the protonema?
    New leafy stems
  66. What generation of the ferns is dominant?
  67. What are the leaf like structures of the fern and what do they do?
    • Fronds
    • They Photosynthesize
  68. What is the underground, horizontal stem of the ferns?
  69. What are the spots under the leafs of ferns? (plural and singular)
    • Sori
    • Sorus
  70. What do the sori contain?
  71. What do the sporangium produce?
  72. What do the spores germinate into?
  73. What is the characteristic shape of a prothallus?
    Heart Shaped
  74. How big is the prothallus?
    1/4 to 1/2 inch
  75. What generation is the prothallus?
  76. T/F the prothallus can be male, female, or both.
  77. The sperm have flagellum. What do ferns need to reproduce?
  78. What are the root like structures on the prothallus?
  79. After the egg and sperm fertilize, what do they form?
  80. What does the zygote of the fern turn into?
    Embryo Fern
  81. What are the curled up leaves called of a fern?
    Fiddle head
  82. What is the liverwart also called?
  83. What phylum does liverwart belong to?
  84. What generation is the thallus of the liverwart?
  85. What does the thallus look like?
    • large
    • flat
    • green
  86. What does the thallus of the liverwart do?
  87. What is the fuzz at at the bottom of the liverwart? What do they do?
    • Rhizoids
    • Anchor the plant
  88. Where do liverwars make eggs?
    Archegonial disk
  89. What does the archegonial disk look like?
    Plam tree
  90. Where do the liverwarts make sperm?
    Antheridial disk
  91. What do liverwart need to reproduce?
  92. what method does liverwart use to reproduce?
  93. What is the gemma cup used for?
    Asexual reproduction by fragmentation
  94. What does the capsule of the liverwart produce?
  95. What generation is the capsule?
  96. What produces sperm in the liverwarts?
    Antheridial disk
  97. What are the 3 non vascular phylums? An example for each.
    • Bryophyta-Mosses
    • Hepatophyta-Liverwarts
    • Anthocerophyta-Hornwarts
  98. What are hornwarts?
    Their body is a thallus with rhizoids and they need water to reproduce
  99. What generation is dominant in vascular plants?
  100. T/F Vascular plants have true parts?
  101. What tube cells do they have that doesn't limit them in size or habitat?
    • Xylem
    • Phloem
  102. T/F All vascular plants don't need water to reproduce
  103. What phylum is whisk ferns?
  104. Where do whisk ferns live?
  105. T/F Whisk ferns have sori
  106. What phylum is Ground pine or club moss?
  107. What phylum is Horsetails/Equisetum/Scouring Rushes?
  108. Where is a common place for equisetum to grow?
    Railroad track where the water lays
  109. How tall are horsetails?
    12 in
  110. What is the structure called where the stem branches?
  111. What is in the scouring rushes cell wall?
  112. What were horsetails used for in the olden days?
    Cleanin kettles
  113. What are the 2 most common types of seed vascular plants?
    • Gymnosperms
    • Angiosperms
  114. What generations is dominant in the seed vascular plants?
  115. T/F seed vascular plants need water for repro
  116. What are the 3 characteristics of the Angiosperms?
    • Seeds
    • Flowers
    • Fruits
  117. What does gymno mean?
  118. What are the 3 characteristics of gymnosperms?
    • Coatless seeds
    • No flowers
    • No fruits
  119. What are the 3 parts to a seed?
    • Seed Coat
    • Embryo plant
    • Stored food
  120. What phylum produces cones?
  121. What are the cones to the pine tree?
    The reproductive unit
  122. What are 6 examples of evergreens?
    • Pines
    • Cedar
    • Fir Trees
    • Hemlock
    • Spruce
    • Sequoias
  123. What are Sequoias also known as?
    Red Wood Trees
  124. What does it mean to be an evergreen?
    They dont lose all their leaves at once
  125. What phylum are the dominant gymnosperms?
  126. Where do evergreens mostly live?
    Temperate zones
  127. T/F all conifers are evergreens
  128. T/F there aren't any decidious conifers
  129. What is a decidious tree?
    They lose all their leave at once
  130. What generation of the evergreen do you see all year round?
  131. What are the 2 types of spores in conifers?
    • Mega
    • Micro
  132. What are the spores called in conifers because they have 2 kinds of spores?
  133. T/F Conifers are the most primitive of all seed plants
  134. What kind of wood do conifers produce?
    Soft wood
  135. Why are conifers soft wood?
    Because their xylems are made of Trachids
  136. Why do trachids make the conifers soft wood?
    Because they aren't efficient
  137. What kind of wood do angiosperms give us?
    Hard wood
  138. What are the xylems made of in angiosperms?
  139. What are the 2 types of leaves conifers can have?
    • Scale
    • needle
  140. What do cnifers give us?
    • Lumber
    • Used to frame houses
    • Paper
    • made of pulp from the tree
    • Rosin
    • Terpentine
  141. What is rosin?
    A powder to make things not slip
  142. What is terpentine used for?
    To clean paint brushes
  143. Can we eat conifers? Why or why not?
    • No
    • Many have poisons
  144. What are the 2 types of cones conifers have?
    • Pollen
    • Seed
  145. Which cone of the conifer is female?
  146. Which cones of the conifers are the woody cones?
  147. Where do we see seed cones?
    Inside the tree
  148. What colors do seed cones go from?
    Green -> Brown
  149. What position do seed cones start out as and what happens to them as they mature?
    • Closed
    • They open up
  150. How long do seed cones take to mature?
    2 years
  151. What becomes the seed of the conifers? (2 names)
    • Ovule
    • Megasporangium
  152. What is the chromosone number of the ovule?
  153. what does the megasporangium contain?
    Megaspore mother cells
  154. What process do the megaspore mother cells go through to produce megaspores? How many does it produce?
    • Meiosis
    • 4
  155. What is the chromosome number of the megaspores?
  156. What happens to 3 of the megaspores?
    They die
  157. What happens to the mega spore that lives?
    It goes through mitosis and becomes the female megagametophyte
  158. What is the chromosome number of the female megagametophyte?
  159. What is the male cone of conifers called?
    Pollen Cone
  160. Where are pollen cones found?
    At the end of the branches
  161. What does the microsporangium contain? What procees do they go through? What does it result in?
    • Microspore mother cells
    • Meiosis
    • Microspores
  162. What is the chromosome number of microspores?
  163. What do the microspores become?
    pollen grains
  164. What do the microspores contain?
  165. What are the pollen grains called when they contain a sperm?
    Male microgametophyte
  166. What is pollination?
    The movement of pollen throught the air to the seed cone
  167. What phylum contains cycads?
  168. How do cycads reproduce?
  169. T/F cycads can grown in PA
  170. What organism is in the phylum ginkgophyta?
    Ginkgo Tree
  171. Can ginko trees grow in PA?
  172. Whats another name for the ginko tree?
    Living fossils
  173. What distinct feature do ginko trees have?
    Fan shaped leaves
  174. what genders can ginko trees be?
    • Male or female
    • Not both
  175. What phylum contains gnetum?
  176. What is gnetum?
    A tropical vine
  177. Where does the welwicheria grow?
    The african Savanna
  178. During the dry season what does the welwicheria looks like?
    Surface roots
  179. During the wet season what does the welwicheria look like?
    Big green leaves
  180. T/F the welwicheria grows close to the ground
  181. What green bush grows on the sides of the Grand Canyon?
  182. What is the phylum of the angiosperms?
  183. What are the 2 classes of angiosperms?
    • Monocotyledonae
    • Dicotyledonae
  184. What kind of veins do monocots have?
  185. How many seed leaves do monocots have?
  186. What kind of veins do dicots have?
  187. How many seed leaves do dicots have?
  188. What is special about the pollenation of angiosperms?
    They can be polleniated by insects
  189. Angiosperms coevolved with what?
  190. Whats does coevolved mean?
    Both changed for their benefit
  191. What was the fruit of the bean seed originally?
    Ovary of the flower
  192. What is the pedicel?
    The stem of the fruit of the angiosperm
  193. What carries the food and water to the seed?
  194. What was the seed originally?
    An Ovule
  195. Where does the pollen tube the ovule at?
  196. Where does the food enter the ovule?
  197. What becomes the embryo plant?
    the egg and sperm
  198. What is the seed coat called?
  199. What is the future leaves of the embryo plant called?
  200. What are the future roots of the embryo plant?
  201. What part of the seed stores starch?
  202. What is the part of the embryo plant that is above where it attaches to the cotyledon?
  203. What is the part of the embryo plant that is below where it attaches to the cotyledon?
  204. What willthe hypocotyl become?
    The stem
  205. What is the male flower of the corn called?
  206. What is the female flower of the corn called?
  207. What is are the base of the corn kernal where it attaches to the ear?
  208. What part of the flower is the cob?
  209. What are the greenish-white leave surrounding the ear?
    The petals and sepals
  210. T/F Corn is a fruit called a grain
  211. What was the silk of the corn at one time?
    The style and stigma of the ovary
  212. Where does a corn kernal store its food?
  213. How many cotyledons does a coren seed have?
  214. What is the chromosone number of the microsporangium?
  215. What is found in the anther?
  216. What does the microsporangium make?
  217. What are located in the microsporangium originally? What is their chromosome number?
    Microspore mother cells 2N
  218. What process does the microspore mother cells go through? What is the result?
    • Meiosis
    • Microspores
  219. Microspores go through Mitosis to become what? (2 names)
    • Male Microgametophyte
    • Pollen
  220. What are the 2 nuclei of the pollen called?
    • Tube nucleus
    • Generative Nucleus
  221. What is the tube nucleus' job?
    Controlling the growth of the pollen tube
  222. What is the job of the generative nuleus?
    To divide into 2 sperm
  223. What is found in the ovary?
  224. T/F there can be more than one microsporangium in the ovary
  225. What is another name for the megasporangium?
  226. What is the chromosome number of the megasporangium?
  227. What is foud within the megasporangium initially? What is their chromosome number?
    Megaspore Mother Cells 2N
  228. What process do megaspores result from? What is their chromosome number?
    • Meiosis
    • N
  229. How many megasopres are formed? How many live?
    • 4
    • 1
  230. What happens to the one megaspore that lives? What does it become?
    • It reproduces by mitosis
    • Female Megagametophyte
  231. What is the chromosome number of the female megagametophyte?
  232. What is another name for the female megagametophyte
    Embryo Sac
  233. T/F The pistil is homosporous
  234. What are the 4 types of cells in the Embryosac?
    • Eggs
    • Synergids
    • Polars Cells
    • Antipodals
  235. What is the micropyle?
    The opening for the pollen tube into the embryo sac
  236. What does the zygote grow into in seed formation? What is its chromosome number?
    Embryo plant 2N
  237. What 3 things combine to make the endosperm?
    • Sperm
    • 2 Polar cells
  238. What is the chromosome number of the endosperm? What is the special name for this?
    • 3N
    • Triploid
  239. How does the seed coat form?
    The ovule hardens
  240. What kind of food do dicots store?
    Little food
  241. What kind of food do monocots store?
    Big food
  242. What are the layers in the ovule wall?
  243. What will the ovary become?
    The fruit
  244. What is fruit made of?
    Usually an enlarged ovary
  245. What must fruit contain to truly be a fruit?
  246. What are the 2 kinds of fruits?
    • Fleshy
    • Dry
  247. What are the 2 characteristics of fleshy fruits?
    • Soft
    • Sugary
  248. What are the 3 characteristics of dry fruits?
    • Dry
    • Paperlike
    • Woodlike
  249. T/F We eat dry fruits
  250. What are the 3 kinds of fleshy fruits?
    • Simple
    • Aggregates / Acessory
    • Multiple
  251. What are 3 kinds of simple friuts?
    • Drupe
    • Berry
    • Pome
  252. What are 2 examples of Drupes?
    • Peaches
    • Cherries
  253. What are 3 examples of berries?
    • Oranges
    • Tomatoes
    • Cucumbers
  254. What are 2 examples of pomes?
    • Apples
    • Pears
  255. What are 2 examples of aggregate fruits?
    • Strawberries
    • Raspberries
  256. What are 2 examples of a multiple friut?
    • Pineapple
    • Mulberry
  257. What are the 2 main types of dry fruits?
    • Dehiscent
    • Indehiscent
  258. What does dehiscent mean?
    Seeds pop out
  259. What does indehiscent mean?
    Doesn't split open
  260. What are 3 types of dry dehiscent fruits?
    • Legumes / Pods
    • Follicle
    • Capsule
  261. What are 3 examples of a legume?
    • Peas
    • Beans
    • Peanuts
  262. What is an example of a follicle?
  263. What are 3 examples of capsules?
    • Poppy
    • Cotton
    • Chesnuts
  264. WHat are the 3 types of dry indehiscent fruits?
    • Samara
    • Grain
    • Nut
  265. What is an example of a samara?
  266. What are 3 examples of grains?
    • Corn
    • Oats
    • Rice
  267. What are 3 examples of nuts?
    • Acorns
    • Pecons
    • Walnuts
  268. What is asexual reproduction also called?
    Vegetative propogation
  269. What are the 4 types of natural asexual reproduction?
    • Rhizomes
    • Stolons
    • Runners
    • Tip Layering
  270. What are rhizomes?
    Fat underground stems
  271. What reproduces by rhizomes?
  272. What are stolons?
    Skinny underground stems
  273. What reproduces by stolons?
  274. What are runners?
    Aboveground attachments
  275. What reproduces by runners?
  276. What is tip layering?
    When a branch gets too heavy and touches the ground and formes new roots
  277. What reproduces by tip layering?
    Blackberry bushes
  278. What are the 3 types of man influenced asexual reproduction?
    • Cutting
    • Layering
    • Grafting
  279. What is cutting?
    Cut off part of the stem and plant it in a new pot
  280. What is cutting used mostly on?
    House plants
  281. What is layering?
    Put soil at the base of the plant and pull out the stems that formed new roots
  282. What do we use layering on?
    Rose bushes
  283. What is grafting?
    Taking a branch from the desired tree and inserting it into a young tree
  284. What is grafting used on?
    Red Delicious Apples
  285. What are the 2 types of flowers?
    • Perfect
    • Imperfect
  286. What makes a flower perfect?
    They have both male and female parts in the same flower
  287. What is and example of a perfect flower?
  288. What makes a flower imperfect?
    Have only male of only female parts on one flower
  289. What is an example of an imperfect flower?
    The tassel on corn
  290. What are the 2 types of plants?
    • Monoecious
    • Dioecious
  291. What makes a plant monoecious?
    They have both male and female parts on the same plant
  292. What are 3 examples of monoecious plants?
    • Corn
    • Yucca
    • Pine Trees
  293. What amkes a plant diecious?
    The plants have seperate male and female plants
  294. What are 2 examples of diecious plants?
    • Holly
    • Ginko Trees
  295. What are 2 types of flowers?
    • Complete
    • Incomplete
  296. What makes a flower complete?
    They have all the flower parts
  297. What is an example of a complete flower?
  298. What is an incomplete flower?
    They are missing some whorls
  299. What is an example of an incomplete flower?
    Ear of corn is missing Stamens
  300. How many flower parts do monocots have?
    3s or multiples of 3
  301. how many flower parts do dicots have?
    4s or 5s or multiples of 4 or 5
  302. What is the coleoptile?
    Covers and protects the epicotyl of the corn embryo plant as it grows
  303. What is the growth of a seed called?
  304. What is the ability of a seed to grow called?
  305. What is seed dormancy?
    Some seeds need to be exposed to cold temperatures before they can grow
  306. What 3 elements affect seed growth?
    • Water
    • Oxygen
    • Temperature
  307. What is the flower's main job?
    Sexually reproduce
  308. What are flowers before they bloom?
  309. What are the rings of flower parts?
  310. What is all the speals together called?
  311. What is at the base of the petal that makes nectar and scents?
    Nectar pad
  312. What is nectar?
    Sugar water
  313. What 2 parts of the flower are not essential for reproduction?
    • Petals
    • Sepals
  314. What is all the petals together?
  315. What is the female reproductive structure in a flower?
  316. What are the 3 parts of the pistil?
    • Stigma
    • Style
    • Ovary
  317. What is the jof of the stigma?
    Trap pollen
  318. What is the jof of the style?
    Elevates Stigma
  319. What is the jof of the ovary?
    Make ovules
  320. What is the male reproductive part of a flower?
  321. What are the 2 parts of a stamen?
    • Anther
    • Filament
  322. What is the jof of the anther?
    Make pollen
  323. What does the filament contain?
    • Xylem
    • Phloem
  324. What are petals?
    Modified leaves that attract insects
  325. What will the ovules become?
  326. What are the sepals?
    Unessential modified green leaves that protect the bud
  327. What is the receptacle?
    Where all the whorls attach
  328. What is the pedicel?
    Made of vascular tissue so it brings food to the flower
  329. What 2 structures form from double fertilization?
    • Endosperm
    • Embryo Plant
  330. What is the jof of the endosperm?
    Store starch for the seed
Card Set
Kingdom Plantae
Chapter 28 & 30