RED 901

  1. Read-Aloud
    In read-aloud, the teacher reads to the whole class, building on students' existing skills while introducing different types of literature and new concepts. Read-aloud models fluent and expressive reading, develops comprehension and critical thinking strategies -- including the ability to make connections, visualize stories, and formulate questions -- and builds listening skills. A read-aloud can be conducted without interruption, or the teacher can pause to ask questions and make observations.
  2. Shared Reading
    In shared reading, the teacher leads the class in reading or chanting a text -- a book, poem, or message on a chart -- that is often enlarged for the whole class to see. Shared reading allows students to observe the reading process and to practice reading strategies or concepts in the safety of a group. The same enlarged text is read and reread several times over a few days. Initially the teacher takes the lead, and then gradually pulls back as students progressively master the text. In each reading, children are encouraged to focus on or discover new concepts about print.
  3. Guided Reading
    In guided reading, the teacher guides small groups of students in reading short, carefully chosen texts in order to build independence, fluency, comprehension skills, and problem-solving strategies. The teacher often begins by introducing the text and modeling a particular strategy. Then students read to themselves in quiet voices as the teacher listens in, noting strategies and obstacles, and cuing individual students as needed. Students then discuss content, and share problem-solving strategies. Guided-reading materials usually become increasingly challenging and are often read more than once. The teacher regularly observes and assesses students' changing needs, and adjusts groupings accordingly. Guided reading allows a teacher to provide different levels of support, depending on the needs of the students.
  4. Guided Reading/ Instructional Reading Level
    At the guided reading/instructional reading level, students read with some classroom instruction and teacher support, and approach new texts with some independence. Although criteria vary, 95% word-identification accuracy and 60% to 70% comprehension are typical standards for judging whether a student is reading at this level.
  5. Independent Reading
    In independent reading, students read books on their own, exploring different kinds of texts and applying new learning. Students should be able to read these books easily, without assistance. In this video library, students often choose their reading materials, but independent reading can be organized by leveled book baskets or recommendations from the teacher. Teachers confer individually with students during independent reading or model their own silent reading. Independent reading is sometimes called DEAR (Drop Everything and Read) or SSR (Sustained Silent Reading).
  6. Independent Reading Level
    At the independent reading level, students read with little or no support from the teacher, and independently solve problems while reading for meaning. Although criteria vary, 95% to 100% word-identification accuracy and 80% comprehension are typical standards for judging whether a student is reading at this level.
  7. Interactive Writing
    In interactive writing, the teacher helps groups of students compose and write text together, usually on large chart paper. With guidance from the teacher, individual students take turns writing, as classmates offer ideas and suggestions. Students practice writing strategies and skills modeled by the teacher, including letter formation, phonemic awareness and phonics, and concepts about print. Interactive writing is sometimes called "sharing the pen."
  8. Independent Writing
    In independent writing, students write about literature or other topics on their own. In this video library, students write and illustrate creative stories or journal entries on topics of their own choosing. Often followed by a time to share written work with a partner or with the whole class, independent writing allows students to be recognized as authors and to receive feedback.
  9. Physical Space
    Physical space refers to the arrangement of the classroom (furniture and wall space) and the organization of materials that support literacy and encourage independence in students. The classroom arrangement can encourage varied encounters with print and facilitate large and small group conversations (in a library area, comfortable reading spaces, meeting area with easel, or literacy centers). The wall space can display attractive, organized, environmental print that reflects students' lives and backgrounds. Placing students' artwork and writing on the walls give students ownership in their classroom. Reading and writing materials can be arranged to be inviting and accessible.
  10. Materials and Tools
    Materials and tools are the objects and print materials used to engage students in literacy activities. Examples include the following: word walls that foster word recognition and correct spelling; an attendance chart that builds name recognition and initial letter identification; work boards or job charts that allow students to move independently through tasks; enlarged poetry or other charts that model reading strategies and encourage independent practice; pointers for reading that help students attend to and build concepts about print; and stamp pads and letter cubes that help students practice building words
  11. Techniques and Management Practices
    Classroom routines, organizational techniques, and management practices can establish a productive learning environment that promotes literacy while also encouraging student independence and community responsibility. Examples include daily attendance using a pocket chart with students' names to encourage responsibility for checking in while building name recognition and letter awareness; daily morning meetings that provide opportunities for language development and for specific instruction in reading and writing; classroom jobs; and opportunities for student leadership of daily routines.
  12. Tone and Atmosphere
    The tone and atmosphere of a classroom are conveyed through the teacher's voice, word choice, body language, and physical positioning, as well as through the arrangement of the room and organization of classroom routines. The tone and atmosphere can communicate the following: the belief that all students can learn and are capable of taking responsibility; enthusiasm for all forms of literacy; the clear purpose of each instructional activity; a clarity of expectations; an appreciation of individual differences; and responsiveness and flexibility. A teacher sitting next to the students on the floor, or helping shy students communicate their work through drawings are situations that create such an inclusive atmosphere
  13. Invented (or Temporary) Spelling
    A child's attempt at spelling a word using what they know about the English spelling system is referred to as invented or temporary spelling. Invented spelling allows emergent writers to explore written language and experiment with writing at a very early stage. Early writing is a valuable developmental indicator of the conventional spelling patterns and the sound/symbol relationships the child has internalized. It can be used to help the teacher's instruction. (Adapted from Literacy Dictionary, p. 128)
Card Set
RED 901
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