Ap Human Geo Government

  1. What is Culture?
    the total knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors shared and passed on by the members of a group
  2. What is a society?
    group that shares a geographic region, sense of identity and culture
  3. Ethnic Group
    group that shares language, customs, and common heritage
  4. How do societies form?
    • individual-one person
    • Family-made up of individuals
    • Clan-made up of families
    • tribe-made up of clans
    • tribes grow until they become a society
  5. basic human needs
    • food
    • water
    • oxygen
    • Shelter and clothing(not actual needs)
  6. invention
    creating something new
  7. innovation
    taking something already made and making it better
  8. Diffusion
    the spreading of goods, ideas, inventions, or patterns of behavior
  9. Cultural hearth
    site of innovation in which ideas, materials, and technology diffuse to many cultures
  10. Acculturation
    when a society changes because it accepts or adopts an innovation
  11. language
    • allows people within a community to communicate
    • --one of the most important aspects of a culture
    • --helps establish cultural identity
    • --can also divide people
  12. language families
    • 3,000-6500 languages exist and they are grouped based on similarities
    • --english, russian, hindi, and greek all came from indo european faminy
  13. Dialects
    different versions of a language, written the same
  14. Language Diffusion
    languages can be diffused by trade routes, having multiple languages in the same area, and migration
  15. Religion
    A belief system that consists of supernatural powers and a creator and maintainer of the universe
  16. 3 types of religion
    • monotheistic-1god
    • polytheistic-multiple gods
    • animistic-tribal beliefs in supernatural forces
  17. missionary/nonmissionary religion
    • missionary-people can be converted
    • nonmissionary-born into the religion
  18. birthrate
    live births per thousand.
  19. fertility rate
    avg children a woman has in her lifetime. need 2.1 to support pop, current is3.0
  20. mortality(death) rate
    infant mortality rate
    • deaths per thousand people
    • deaths per thousand live births under 1 year
  21. Migration
    large scale movement of people from one place to another
  22. push factor
    pull factor
    • pushes people away from a location
    • Pulls people towards a location
  23. population density
    how many people per given area
  24. Carrying capacity
    the number of organisms the land can support
  25. megalopolis
    when several cities grow together
  26. City locations
    • easy access to transportation
    • natural resources
    • specialize in certain economic activities
  27. Land use patterns
    • residential-single family and apartments
    • industrial-manufacturing
    • commercial- selling goods
  28. State
    independent unit that occupies a specific territory and has full control over its internal and external affairs(country)
  29. Nation
    group of people with similar culture occupying a territory
  30. nation-state
    • when a nation and state occupy the same territory
    • stateless nation-when a nation is without a territory
  31. democracy
    • direct democracy-decisions are made by people directly
    • representative democracy(indirect)people elect representatives, may keep monarch as figurehead
    • democratic republic-republic with a democracy
  32. monarch
    • absolute:complete control
    • limited:(constitutional)monarch is limited by a constitution
  33. Totalitarianism
    all aspects of the life of people, extreme authoriratian
  34. Authoritarian regeme
    only gov't is ruled by leader
  35. aristocracy
    ruled by upper class
  36. oligarchy
    all power in a few people
  37. dictatorship
    gov't has absolute power
  38. communism
    everybody is equal
  39. Anarchy
    • no gov't
    • any gov't is beter than no gov't
  40. characteristics of states
    • size
    • shape(compact/fragmented)
    • location (landlocked/not)
  41. national boundaries
    • natural-rivers can migrate
    • artificial- countries may claim more than agreed on.
  42. regional political system
    regions are broken up(cities) to make governing more efficient
  43. economy
    production and exchange of goods and services
  44. economic systems
    • traditional-trade and barter system
    • Command-gov't decides
    • market-supply and demand
    • mixed-command and mixed
  45. monopoly/duopoly/oligopoly(cartel)
    only a few companies have a monopoly on a buisness
  46. primary activities
    secondary activities
    tertiary activities
    quaternary activities
    • raw materials
    • manufactured goods
    • services
    • information management&highly trained services
  47. natural resources
    materials on the earth that someone is willing to pay for
  48. renewable
    • replaced in 1-2 lifetimes(trees)
    • not replaced once removed from ground(oil)
    • never run out(wind, sun, tides)
  49. economic support systems
    • infrastructure-basic support system of an economy(power, transportation, sanitation, etc)
    • transportation-one of the most important things to infrastructure
  50. measuring economic development
    per capita income avg yearly income of a person
  51. GDP
    Gross domestic product-money made on goods and services in us
  52. GNP
    Gross National Product- amount of money made from goods and services
  53. PPP
    purchasing power parity-takes into account cost of living and income
Card Set
Ap Human Geo Government
culture, population