What is learning?
a systematic, relatively permanent change in behavior that occurs through experience.
What is classical conditioning?
learning process in which a neutral stimulus becomes associated with a meaningful stimulus and accquires the capacity to elicit a similar response
Who was Pavlov?
Russian physiologist that studied how dogs digest food
What are the NS,UCS,UCR,CS,and CR? be able to identify each in an example and in Pavlov's original studies.
- UCS(unconditional stimulus) produces a response without prior learning.
- NS(neutral stimulus) can detect but no reaction.
- UCR(unconditional response) reaction that is unlearned.
- CS(conditional stimulus)learned reaction detectwith 5 senses.
- CR(conditional response) learned
- UCS- meat powder
- UCR- dog salivates
- NS- sound of pavlov bell( prior to pairing with the meat powder)
- CS-sound of pavlov bell
- CR-dog salivates
What are extinction and spontaneous recovery?
extinction- the conditional response is weakened by the conditional stimlus and the unconditional stimulus.(pavlov rang bell but did not present food and the dog stop salivating)
spontaneous recovery-conditional response recurs after a time delay and without additional learning(when pavlov rang the bell the next day, the dog salivated)
Who was little Albert? Whose research is he associated with? What were the NS,UCS, etc in the famous study?
- little Albert was the baby in Watson and Rayner study with the rats,
- CS- the white rats
- UCS- the bell
- UCR- the noise that caused albert to cry
- CR- albert began to fear the rat when the noise was not sounded
What is aversive conditioning?
a form of treatment that consists of repeated pairings of a stimulus with a very unpleasant stimulus
What is operant conditioning?
also called instrumental conditioning, a form of associative learning in which the consequence of a behavior change the probabiltiy of the behaviors occurence.
What is a consequence? What type of conditioning involves the power of consequence?
a type of action either a negative or positive response according to behavior, operant conditioning.
Who was Thorndike? What appartus did he use? What law did he propose?
an american psychologist, studying cats in a puzzle box, he proposed the law of effect( behaviors followed by positive outcomes are strengthned and that behaviors followed by negative outcomes are weakened)
What kind of animal did the following work with: Pavlov, watson, skinner, thorndike, kohler, and tolman?
- Pavlov- dogs
- Watson- white rats
What is shaping?
rewarding approximations of the desired behavior
What is contionous versus partial reinforcement?
contionous reinforcement is when a behavior is reinforced everytime it occurs, versus partial reinforcement when a reinforcer follows a behavior only a portion of the time.
What are the different schedules of partial reinforcement?
fixed ratio- reinforcement follows a set # of behaviors
variable ratio- reinforcement follows an unpredicitable # of behaviors(slot machine)
fixed interval- reinforcement follows behavior that occurs after a set amount of time has elapsed(paid every two weeks)
variable interval-reinforcement follows behavior that occurs afetr an unpredictable amount of time has elapsed( fishing, class with pop quiz required points)
What is reinforcement and punsihment?
reinforcement is the process by which rewarding stimulus or event following a particular behavior increases the probabiltiy that the behavior will happen again.
punishment is a consequence that decreases the likelyhood of a behavior happening again
What is a primary versus secondary reinforcer.
a primary reinforcer is innately satisfying that is a primary reinforcer does not take any learning on the organism part to make it pleasurable
a secondary acquires its positive value through an organisms experience, a secondary reinforcer is a learned or conditioned reinforcer.
What is positive versus negative reinforcement?
positive reinforcement- behavior followed by a rwarding consequence( rewarding stimulus is added)you turn in your project on time and the manager praises you for turning it in on time
negative reinforcement- behavior followed by a rewarding consequence aversive unpleasant behavior is removed( you take asprin for a headache and your headache goes away)
What is postive versus negative punishment?
positive punishment- behavior followed by aversive consequence unpleasant stimulus is added(you don't replace the tires on the family car when your parent asks you to, your parents get angry with you for not replacing the tires)
negative punishment-behavior followed by aversive consequence rewarding stimulus is removed( your younger sister comes home two hours late and she gets grounded for two weeks)
What is vicarious conditioning?
vicarious reinforcement- a reward for an activity increases the chances that an observer will repeat the behavior
vicarious punishment-seeing the model punished makes the observer less likely to repeat the behavior
What is observational learning?
learning that occurs when a person observes and imitates behavior(modeling) Albert Bandura- social cognitive theory BoBo Doll
What is a BoBo Doll and why do we care about it in this class?
a BoBo Doll is a clown that bobbles back and forth when hit and the BoBo Doll was used to represent observational learning when kids see someone doing something it influences their actions
What is biological prepardness and instinctive drift?
instinctive drift- the tendency of animals to revert to instinctive behavior that interfers with learning
biological prepardness- the species specific biological predisposition to learn in certain ways but not others
What is latent learning? Who described it first?
also called implicit learning, unreinforced learnign that is not immediately reflected in behavior(Tolman and Honzik)
What is developnmental psychology?
the pattern of continuity and change that occurs throughout the lifespan
What are the cross sectionals and longitudinal designs? What are the advantages and disadvantages of both?
Cross sectional studies recruit people of different age groups and then compare them the disadvantage is cohort when you have people born around the same time
Longitudinal studies recruit people and follow them over time disadvantage is attrition losing thing overtime
What is the nature vrs nuture debate?
Nature deals with biologica inheritance, nuture deals with environmental experiences the developer individuals take active roles in own development
What is resilience?
- a person abiltiy to recover from or adapt to difficult times
- Ex. experiencing child abuse, death of parent at early age
What is prenatal developnment?
the germinal, embryonic, and fetal periods
How are babies made?
by conception when the sperm reaches the egg
What is a zygote? embryo? fetus?
zygote-a single cell with 23 chromosomes from the mother and 23 from the father
embryo-An unborn human baby, esp. in the first eight weeks from conception, after implantation but before all the organs are developed
fetus- A fetus is an unborn, developing mammal
When is the earliest a home pregancy test can give a positive result?
towards the end of the germinal period, or a week after implantation
When does the heart start beating?
at the end of the embryonic period
When does the neural tube form? What will it eventually become? How can neural tube defects be prevented?
in the 3 week of embryonic period becoming the spinal cord, neural tube defects can be prevented by a woman taking folic acid
When do kicks become detectable during pregancy?
in the fetal period
When does the sex become deffrianted during pregnancy?
in fetal period
What are teraogens? What are some known teraogens?
agents that cause birth defects, nicotine, alchold, STIs
How can scientist study infant perception when babies cant talk?
by their reflexes, motor and perceptual skills
What is cognitive developnment?
refers to how thought, intelligence, and language processes change as people mature
Who was Piaget?
the famous Swiss developmental psychologist, presented the theory of cognitive developnment
What are assimilation and accommodation?
assimilation- an individuals incorporation of new infromation into existing knoweledge(NEW INFO)
accommodation- an individuals adjustement of his or her schemas to new information(NEW SCHEMAS)
Know Piagets 4 stages of intellectual development. Know them well
sensorimotor stage-coordinate sensations with movement object permanence
preoperational stage- symbolic thinking, intutive reasoning, egocentrism
concrete operational stage-operational thinking, classification skills, logical thinking in concrete contexts
formal operational stage-last through adult hood, abstract and idealistic thought, hypothetical deductive reasoning
What is object permanence? egocentrisim? conservation?
object permanence is when objects and events continue to exist even when they cannot be directly seen or heard, or touched(out of sight out of mind)
egocentrisim- self center way of thinking
conservation-the idea that the amount stays the same when it looks different
Who was Vygotsky? what did he propose about cognitive development?
russican psychologist that proposed that the goal of cognitive development is to learn the skills that will allow the individual to be competent in his or her particular culture
What is temperament?
an individuals behavioral style and characterisitc way of responding
What are the three temperamental styles based on the New York Longitudinal Study?
easy, difficult, and slow to warm up
What did Harlow document about infant monkeys?
that the monkeys perferred contact over nourishment and only got nurishment when they were literally starving
What is attachement?
an emotional bond between infant and mother
Who is Mary Ainsworth?
proposed the strange situation
What is the strange situation?
when caregivers leave infants alone with starngers and then return, and determine what kind of attachement it is
Who was Erikson? What are his stages?
- proposed eight psychosocial stages of development
- trust vs mistrust
- autonomy vs shame and doubt(doing things on your own)
- initative vs guilt( try new things)
- industry vs inferiority ( develope a sense your okay)
What is authoritarin?permissive?and authoratitive parenting?
- authoritarin- controlling and punitive(bad)
- authorative-encourage independence with limits(tender teacher)
- permissive-parents are involved but place few limits
What are Kohlberg's levels of moral development?
preconventional-guided by punishment and rewards( you would steal if it would get you a toy)
conventional-learned from parents and society(breaking the law is wrong)
postconventional- contracts rights and abstract principles(moral judgement)
What is puberty?
rapid skeletal and sexual maturation
What is adolescent egocentrisim?
the belief that others are as occupied with the adolescetn as he or she is( he is looking at my pimple, they will notice i have gained three pounds)
What is identity diffusion,foreclosure,moratorium, and achievement?
- identity diffusion- dont know yet what you want to be
- identity foreclosure- think they figure it out but not really
- identity moratorium- delay identity issues
- identity achievement-achieve their identity
What are menopause and andropause?
menopause- a women has gone a full year without a period happening around late 40s or early 50s
andropause- sperm count is decreasing