PSY 200 Final

  1. Anterograde amnesia
    Loss of memories for events that occur after a head injury.
  2. Attention
    Focusing awareness on a narrowed range of stimuli or events.
  3. Chunking
    A group of familiar stimuli stored as a single unit.
  4. Conceptual hierarchy
    A multilevel classication system based on common properties among items.
  5. Encoding
    Forming a memory code
  6. Storage
    Maintaining encoded information in memory over time.
  7. Retrieving
    Recovering information from memory stores.
  8. Levels of processing theory
    The theory holding that deeper levels of mental processing result in longer-lasting memory codes.
  9. Elaboration
    Linking a stimulus to other information at the time of encoding.
  10. Dual coding theory
    Paivio's theory that memory is enhanced by forming semantic and visual codes, since either can lead to recall.
  11. Self referent encoding
    Deciding how or whether information is personally relevant.
  12. Sensory Memory
    The preservation of information in its original sensory form for a brief time, usually only a fraction of a second.- No attention required
  13. Iconic Memory
    Visual memories- Part of sensory memory
  14. Echoic Memory
    Auditory memory- lasts(4-5 seconds) a little longer than iconic memory(about one second).

    Part of sensory memory
  15. Short term memory(STM)
    A limited-capacity store that can maintain unrehearsed information for about 20 to 30 seconds.- Requires attention
  16. Rehearsal
    The process of repetitively verbalizing or thinking about information-- (phone number in head, name of person you barely know)
  17. Longterm memory (LTM)
    An unlimited capacity store that can hold information over lengthy periods of time.
  18. Flashbulb Memories
    Unusually vivid and detailed recollections of momentous events-- (September 11, 2001) Not any more accurate than other memories
  19. Visuospatial sketchpad
    Permits people to temporarily hold and manipulate visual images-- found in working memory.
  20. Phonological Loop
    At work when you use recitation to temporarily hold on to a phone number- found in working/short term memory
  21. Central executive system
    (Not a storage system) Controls the deployment of attention, switching the focus of attention and dividing attention.- Found in short term/working memory
  22. Episodic Buffer
    A temporary, limited capacity store that allows the various components of working memory to integrate information
  23. Phonemic encoding
    Based on sound- involved with short term/ working memory
  24. Schema
    An organized cluster of knowledge about a particular object or event abstracted from previous experience with the object or event -- Kind of like stereotyping
  25. Semantic Network
    Consists of nodes representing concepts joined together by pathways that link related concepts.. (Thinking about one word can lead to thinking about another word, and another... Bread and butter
  26. Spreading activation
    Thinking about one word leads to thinking about another
  27. Parallel distributed processing (PDP) models
    Models of memory that assume cognitive processes depend on patterns of activation in highly interconnected computational networks that resemble neural networks... (certain smell triggers memories of when you were younger-- grandma's cookies n' shit like that)
  28. Tip of the tongue phenomenon
    The temporary inability to remember something you know, accompanied by a feeling that it's just out of reach.
  29. Retrieval cues
    Stimuli that help gain access to memories.
  30. Context cues
    Trying to recall an event by putting yourself back in the context in which it occurred.
  31. Misinformation effect
    Occurs when participants recall of an event they witnessed is altered by introducing misleading post-event information-- (How fast was the car going when he hit that mofo COMPARED TO Smashed into that mofo)
  32. Source monitoring
    Making attributions about the origins of memories.
  33. Source monitoring error
    Occurs when a memory derived from one source is misattributed to another source.
  34. Reality monitoring
    the process of deciding whether memories are based on external sources (ones perceptions of actual event) or internal sources (ones thoughts and imaginations)
  35. Forgetting curve
    Graphs retention and forgetting overtime
  36. Retention
    Refers to the proportion of material retained.
  37. Recall
    Measure of retention Requires subjects to reproduce information on their own without any cues
  38. Recognition
    Measure of retention Requires subjects to select previously learned information from an array of options.
  39. Relearning
    Measure of retention Requires a subject to memorize information a second time to determine how much time or how many practice trials are saved by having learned before.
  40. Decay theory
    Forgetting occurs because memory traces fade with time.
  41. Interference theory
    People forget information because of competition from other material.
  42. Retroactive interference
    Occurs when new information impairs the retention of previously learned information.
  43. Proactive interference
    Occurs when previously learned information interferes with the retention of new information.
  44. Retrograde Amnesia
    Involves the loss of memories for events that occurred prior to the onset of amnesia.
  45. Consolidation
    A hypothetical process involving the gradual conversion of information into durable memory codes stored in long term memory.
  46. Declarative memory system
    Handles factual information (words, names, dates, faces, events and shit like that)
  47. Non declarative memory system
    Houses memory for actions, skills, conditioned responses and emotional responses. (riding a bike, typing, tying shoes)
  48. Episodic memory system
    Made up of chronological recollections of personal experiences.
  49. Semantic memory system
    Contains general information knowledge that is not tied to the time the information was learned (christmas is on December 25, dogs have four legs, shit like that)
  50. Prospective memory
    Remembering to perform actions in the future --- (walk the dog, feed the cat, shit like that)
  51. Retrospective memory
    Remembering events from the past, or previously learned information.
  52. Primacy effect
    You tend to remember the first few things of a sequence
  53. Recency effect
    Tend to remember the last thing you learned
  54. Hindsight Bias
    Tendency to mold ones interpretation of the past to fit how events actually turned out
  55. Conformation Bias
    Only searching for evidence that confirms ones beliefs
  56. Decision making
    many decisions(or answers)
  57. Problem solving
    one answer
  58. mental set
    returning to problem solving strat. that worked in the past
  59. Formal logic
    If P, then Q
  60. Heuristics
    shortcut to answer- no guaranteed solution but quick and easy
  61. Availability heuristic
    Overestimate vivid things, under estimate non vivid things
  62. Representative heuristics
    Stereotype--- likelihood of event based on how typical it seems
  63. Semanticity
    Property of language that describe the separate units and how these units have meaning
  64. Displacement
    Property of language that allows communication that are not here and not now-- past and future events and shit
  65. Phoneme
    sounds of spoken language
  66. morpheme
    smallest meaningful unit of language
  67. Syntax
    Rules of grammar that govern how words can be combined into sentences
Card Set
PSY 200 Final
PSY 200 Final