1. the attracation of a cation to an anion is an:
    ionic bond
  2. the sharing of electrons is an:
    covalent bond
  3. an attraction between a slightly positive H atom in one molecule to a slightly negiative O,N atom in another molecule is a:
    Hydrogen bond
  4. Rank the 3 types of bonds from strongest to weakest:
    covalent, ionic, hydrogen
  5. Discuss the major properties of water:
    • its atoms are joined together by polar covalent bonds
    • and its molecule is V shaped with a 105 degree bondy angle. This makes the moleclue as a whole ploar with a slight postive on the hydrogen, and slight negative on teh oxygen.
  6. Disscuss the importance of water to living systems:
    • Universal Solvent: dissovles more substances than any other liquied
    • Adhesive/Cohesive: Clings to other substances/Clings to itself
    • Chemicaly Reactive: h2o -> h2+ + OH -
    • High Heat capactiy: little change until temp is very great ( vapor)
  7. a molecule that releases or donates an H+ in water is an:
  8. a molecule that accepts H+ is a:
  9. the measure of acidity is:
  10. explain the importance of pH to living systems:
    • If the body is outside the normal pH of 7/.3 - 7.4 the body will:
    • shut down metabolic pathways
    • alter membrane potential: substances wont flow across the membranes
    • enzymes function best @ optimum pH for rxns to occur
    • stop electrial flow to heart
  11. chemical solutions that resist changes in pH are called:
  12. Explain what buffering systems do:
    • buffers will bind to H+ when pH drops, or becomes too acidic
    • buffers will release H+ when pH rises, or becomes too basic
  13. Distinguish between inorganic and organic compounds:
    • Organic compounds always contain a carbon
    • Organic compounds are found in living organisms
  14. List the 4 types of organic compounds:
    carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, nucleic acids
  15. Describe the structure of carbohydrates:
    glucose molecules (CH2o)n or C6H12O6
  16. Describe the charactersitics of carbohydrates:
    • Monosaccarides: simple sugar
    • Disaccarides: 2 glucose molecules
    • Polysaccarides: more than 2 glucose molecules
    • Glycogen: long chains of glucose (for storage)
    • Starch
    • cellulose
  17. Simple sugar
  18. 2 glucose molecules, examples: sucrose, lactose, maltose
  19. more than 2 molecules of glucose, an example is glycogen
  20. long chains of glucose used for storage
  21. the corresponding energy storage polysaccaride found in plants
  22. Fiborous, cell walls of plants is called
  23. Describe the function of carbohydrates:
    a source of energy that can be quickly mobilized.
  24. describe the structure of lipids:
    long string of carbons
  25. describe the charasticts of lipids:
    • fatty acid:
    • triglycerides
    • phospholipids
  26. describe the function of lipids:
    • long term energy storage
    • insulation
    • cell membranes
    • hormones
  27. a chain of usually 4 to 24 carbon atoms with a carboxyl group/methyl group at the ends is called a:
    fatty acid
  28. a molecule consisting of 3 fatty acids covalently bonded to a 3 chain alcohol called glyerol is a:
  29. this lipid is similar to tryglyceride, except that in place of one fatty acid, they have a phosphate group:
  30. a polymer of amino acids is called a:
  31. describe the structure of a protein:
    amino acids with central carbons atome in an amino ( -NH2) and a carboxyl group (-COOH) attached to it.
  32. Describe the characteristics of proteins:
    • Primary: held together with peptide bonds
    • Secondary: Alpha helix, and beta sheets
    • Teritary: folds occur, 3D structure
    • Quartanary: 2 or more polypeptide chains together.
  33. Describe the functions of proteins:
    • provide structure (nails/skin)
    • communication
    • recognition/protection
    • movement
    • catalysts
  34. Describe the structure of nucleic acids:
    polymers of nucleotides
  35. an organic compound with a single/double C-N ring, a monosaccharide, and 1 or more phosphate group is called a"
  36. what are the characterisitics of nucleic acides:
    DNA and RNA
  37. what are the functions of nucleic acids:
    to synthesize the proteins.
  38. Describe the 4 orders of protein structure:
    • primary: sequence of amino acids
    • secondary: coiled/folded shaped held together by Hbonds, alpha helix, or beta sheet
    • tertiary: bending/folding, 3D shape
    • quaternary: the assocaition of two or more polypeptide chains.
  39. proteins that function as biological catalysts are called:
  40. describe how enzymes contribute to biological systems:
    • lowers activation energy
    • remains unchanged in a rxn
    • can be used over and over again
    • used with anabolic and catabolic rxns
    • substrate specific
    • decomposition rxns
  41. Distinguish between DNA and RNA
    • DNA RNA
    • phosphate phosphate
    • Deoxiribose ribose
    • Double strand single strand
    • Nuleclous cytoplasm
  42. Select the answer that best completes the overall reaction for glucose catabolism: ______ + 6 O 2 --> __ CO 2 + 6 ___+ ___ ATP

    pyruvic acid; 3; water; 34
    maltose; 6; water; 38
    glucose; 6; water; 38
    pyruvic acid; 3; NADH; 34
    glucose; 6; NADH; 38
    glucose; 6; water; 38
  43. Which of the following is NOT a pathway of glucose catabolism?

    anaerobic fermentation
    beta oxidation
    aerobic respiration
    beta oxidation
  44. The coenzyme that serves as energy transfer molecule and H acceptor throughout aerobic respiration is:

    all of the above
    NAD+ and FAD
    NAD+ and FAD
  45. The net production of ATP from glycolysis is:

  46. The net production of ATP from the complete oxidation of glucose through aerobic respiration is:

  47. The majority of exhaled CO2 is generated during which of the following processes?

    electron transport chain
    anaerobic fermentation
    citric acid cycle
    citric acid cycle
  48. Match the following reactions with where they occur:

    citric acid cycle
    electron transport chain

    mitochondrial matrix
    mitochondral membrane
    • glycolysis: cytosol
    • citric actid cycle: mitochondiral matrix
    • electron transport chain: mitocondiral membrane
  49. In lipolysis, what process converts fatty acids into acetyl-CoA, which can then be used to produce ATP in the citric acid cycle?

  50. Which of the following is the first step in using proteins as fuel?

  51. Which of the following is the toxic molecule produced by the breakdown of amino acids for energy?

    glutamic acid
    keto acids
  52. In the final step in the electron transport chain, what powers the phosphorylation of ADP?

    cytochrome c
    movement of FADH2
    movement of H+
    oxygen (O2)
    movement of H+
  53. phospholipids are biologically important because they :

    C. are a main component of cell membranes
  54. The hydrogen and oxygen atoms of a water moelcue are held together by what type of a bond?

    B. polar covalent
  55. C12H24C12 is a :

    A. lipid
  56. steriods are classsified as :
    b. proteins
    c. nucleic acids
    d. lipids
    d. lipids
  57. in proteins, an alpha helix is considered:

    D. secondary structure
  58. which of the following is not true of enzymes

    D. speed up reactions
  59. an ionic bond is formed by :

    B. one atom giving an electron to another atom
  60. water is a universal component of life on this planet because:

    A. dissovles multiple types of substances than any other liquid
  61. list the components and charges of the three things that make up at atom:
    • protons (+)
    • electron (-)
    • neurtons
  62. a pH of _____ is considered acidic, ______ is considered basic, and _____ is neutral
    1-6, 8-13, 7
  63. C6H12O6 is an example of a:
  64. describe the structure, major characteristics and fxn of carbohydrates:
    • structure: 1C:2H:1O
    • caracteristics: monosachrides, polysachrides, starch, celluose
    • fxn: short term energy
  65. describe the structure, characteristics, and fxn of proteins:
    • structure: CHONS, amino acids
    • characteristics: 1- amino acid peptides, 2 - alpha, beta - 3, 3-D folds, twists, 4 -poly peptide chains
    • fxn: transport, protect, carriers, and enzymes
  66. describe teh structure, characteristics, and fxn of lipids:
    • structure: CHON, long chains
    • characteristics: Fatty acids, glycerol, polar and nonpolar ends
    • fxm: long term energy, insulation, membranes
  67. describe the structure, chacteraistics, and fxn of nucleic acids:
    • structure: CHONO
    • characteristics: nuelotides, phosphates
    • fxn: protein building, genetic code expression
  68. when the body needs fuel what does it break down first? second? third?
    • first: glucose
    • second: lipids
    • third: protein
  69. ___________ is going from simple to complex, and ________ is going from complex to simple.
    • anabolism
    • catabolism
  70. a covlant bond is formed by :

    A. the sharing of electrons by two atoms
  71. water molecles tend to stick together because of weak attractions between the water called:

    C. hydrogen bonds
  72. which of the following processes reqires oxygen?

    C. aerobic respiration
  73. where is the electron transport chain located?

    B. mitochondrial membrane
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