1. Annual march of temperature / annual temperature lag
    Maximum solar radiation occurs in summer solstice. Maximum temperatures occur 1-2 months later. Lowest solar radiation occurs during winter solstice. Lowest temperatures ahppen 1-2 months later.
  2. Antarctic Circle
    Latitude at 66 1/2 degrees N; the southern limit of the zone in the Sourthern Hemisphere that experiences a 24-hour period of sunlight and a 24-hour period of darkness at least once a year.
  3. Arctic / Antarctic Zones
    23 1/2 to 66 1/2 degrees North and South; Cool to cold summer; -60, -70, -80 degrees; 24 hours of daylight during summer and 24 hours of darkness during winter
  4. Aphelion
    position of Earth's orbit at farthest distance from the sun during each Earth revolution; July 4.
  5. Arctic Circle
    latitude at 66 1/2 degrees North; the southern limit of the zone in the Northern Hemisphere that experiences 24 hours of sunlight and 24 hours of darkness at least once a year
  6. Calorie
    Amount of heat necessary to raise the temperature of 1 gram of water to 1 degree Celsius
  7. Climate
    Longtime average weather for an area
  8. Climatology
    Scientific study of climates of Earth and their distribution
  9. Conduction
    Transfer of heat within a body or between adjacent matter by means of internal molecular movement
  10. Continental Effect
    Effect of landmasses on temperature to climate. Inland areas tend to experience extremes in temperatures
  11. Convection
    Process by which circulation is produced within an air mass or fluid body
  12. Daily March of Temperature / Daily Temperature Lag
    Solar radiation is maximum at noon but air temperature is highest 2-3 hours after noon.
  13. Electromagnetic Spectrum/Energy
    Energy that comes from the sun; x-rays, gamma rays, uv light, visible light, infrared light, microwaves and radiowaves
  14. Equinox
    One of two times each year when the position of the noon sun is overhead at the equator; day and night are equal in length worldwide; March 21-22, September 22-23
  15. Great Circle
    Shortest distance between nay two places on Earth
  16. Greenhouse Effect
    Shortwave radiation easily penetrates the atmosphere while longwave radiation is absorbed; thus, raising temperatures.
  17. International Dateline
    Line along the 180 degree meridian, where each day begins and ends; it is always a day later west of the line than east of the line
  18. Isobar
    Line drawn on a map to connect all points with the same atmospheric pressure
  19. Isohyet
    Line on a map that connects points of equal precipitation
  20. Isotherm
    Line that connects points of equal temperature
  21. Isopleth
    Line on a map that connects points of equal value
  22. Latent heat of condensation
    Energy release in the form of heat, as water is converted from vapor to the liquid state
  23. Mesosphere
    35-50 Miles. Decreasing air temperature with increasing altitude.
  24. Northern/Southern Midlatitude Zone
    from 23 1/2 to 66 1/2 degrees North and South; cool to cold winters; warm to hot summers.
  25. Normal Lapse Rate
    Average temperature cahnge with increasing or decreasing temperature in the troposphere. 3.5degrees F/1000 ft.
  26. Parallelism
    Tendency of the Earth's polar axis to remain parallel to itself at all positions in its orbit around the sun.
  27. Perihelion
    Position of the Earth at closest distance to sun during each Earth revolution; Jan 3
  28. Plane of the Ecliptic
    Plane of Earth's orbit around the sun and the apparent annual path of the sun along the stars
  29. Solar Constant
    Each ray of sunlight has same amount of energy in it.
  30. Solstice
    One of two times each year when the position of the noon sun is overhead at its farthest distance from the equator; this occurs when the sun is overhead at the Tropic of Cancer (June 21-22) and the Tropic of Capricorn (December 21-22)
  31. Specific Heat
    Water: 1 calorie > 1 gram of H2O > 1 degree Celsius


    • .25 Calorie > 1 gram of soil > 1 degree Celsius
    • 1 calorie > gram soil > 4 degrees Celsius
  32. Temperature Gradient
    Rate of change of temperature with distance in any direction from a given point; refers to rate of change horizontally; a vertical temperature gradient is referred to as the lapse rate
  33. Temperature Inversion
    Reverse of the normal pattern of vertical distribution of air temperature; in the case of inversion, temperature increases rather than decreases with increasing altitude
  34. Tropical zone
    0 degrees to 23 1/2 degrees North and South; Hot all year round; only zone that receives the subsolar point.
  35. Weather
    Current or relatively recent atmospheric conditions in a specific moment in time
Card Set