CSD Intro quiz 1

  1. Communication
    The process of sharing information between two or more persons
  2. Four processes of communication
    • Formulation
    • Transmission
    • Reception
    • Comprehension
  3. Three components of communication
    • Language
    • Speech
    • Hearing
  4. Language
    • Socially shared
    • Code/arbitrary symbols
    • Rule governed
    • Represents ideas that are meaningful to others who know the same code
    • Generative (infinitely creative)
    • Dynamic
    • Can be oral written or signed
  5. Content (language)
    The words we use and the meaning behind them
  6. Semantics (content)
    • The rules of language governing meaning of words and word combinations
    • Involves vocabulary and relationships between words
  7. Form (language)
    How words, sentences, sounds, are organized and arranged to convey content (meaning)
  8. Phonology (form)
    • Rules of language governing the sounds we use to make syllables and words
    • Ex. there are no words in English with "g" following "l" at the beginning
  9. Morphology (form)
    • Rules of language governing the internal organization of words
    • Words can be "morphed" to change meaning (walk- walked- walker)
  10. Morpheme
    The smallest meaningful unit of a language (want, dog, fair)
  11. Syntax (form)
    • The rules of language governing the internal organization of sentences
    • A collection of rules for combining words into phrases and sentences (grammar, word order, sentence structure)
  12. Use (language)
    The purpose of language; why we are communicating in the first place
  13. Pragmatics (use)
    Rules of language governing how language is used for social purposes (conversation and social conventions)
  14. Nonverbal communication
    • Artifacts- possessions, clothing, general appearance
    • Kinesics- gestures, body language
    • Proxemics- physical distance between communicators
    • Tactiles- touching behaviors
  15. Speech
    • Neuromuscular process
    • Allows us to express and transmit language as a vocal product
    • Uses respiration, phonation, and articulation
    • 4 building blocks of normal speech- breathstrem, voice, articulation, fluency
  16. Voice (speech)
    • The sound source of speech
    • Produced in the larynx
    • Characteristics- quality (hoarse, smooth, raspy), volume (how loudly/softly a person speaks), pitch (highness or lowness of voice)
  17. Articulation (speech)
    • The movement of the speech mechanism (mouth) to produce the sounds of speech
    • Involves tongue, teeth, and lips
  18. Fluency (speech)
    • Easy, smooth, flowing, and effortless speech
    • Involves rate (the speed at which we speak), pauses (silence in between words), prosody (the rate and rhythm), repetitions, fillers, prolongations
  19. Hearing
    • The perception of sound
    • 4 steps: creation of sound source, vibration of air particles, reception by the ear, comprehension by the brain
  20. Acuity (hearing)
    The ability to perceive sound
  21. Central Auditory Processing (hearing)
    Making sense of sound after perceiving it
  22. Communication Disorders
    • Significant difficulty in one or more areas of communication process compared to others
    • Problems in formulation, transmission, reception, comprehension
  23. Classification of communication disorders
    • Component that is affected (comprehension, production, etc)
    • Age of onset
    • Etiology
    • Progression
  24. Age of onset (communication disorders)
    • Congenital/developmental- occurs before, during, or shortly after the time of birth
    • Acquired- occurs after a period of normal communication development (result of illness, accident, or environmental circumstances)
  25. Etiology (communication disorders)
    • Cause of origin of the problem
    • Organic- neurological or physiological cause
    • Functional- does not have a known organic cause
  26. Progression of disorder (communication disorders)
    • Progressive/degenerative- deteriorates over time
    • Non-progressive- does not deteriorate over time
  27. Classification of language disorders
    • Organic/functional
    • Developmental/acquired
    • Form/content/use
    • Receptive/expressive
    • Progressive/non-progressive
  28. Classification of speech disorders
    • Articulation- organic/functional, developmental/acquired, progressive/non-progressive
    • Fluency
    • Voice- organic/functional
  29. Classification of hearing disorders
    • The location of the impairment in the auditory system
    • The degree of impairment- deafness or hard of hearing
  30. Anatomy
    The study of structures of the body
  31. Physiology
    The study of the functions of bodily structures
  32. Respiratory system
    • Primary biological functions- breathing (supply oxygen to blood, remove excess CO2 from body)
    • Also funcions as the power source for speech
  33. Diaphragm (respiratory)
    • Muscle of respiration
    • Muscle shaped like a dome
    • Sits at floor of the rib cage (thorax)
    • Separates the stomach from the thorax
    • Inhaling- contraction causes the thoracic cavity to expand (the lungs fill with air)
  34. Intercostal muscles (respiratory)
    • Muscles in between the ribs
    • External intercostals- inhaling
    • Internal intercostals- exhaling
  35. Trachea (respiratory)
    • The airway (windpipe) that extends downward from larynx
    • Divides into 2 bronchi
  36. Lungs (respiratory)
    • Exchange of carbon dioxide for oxygen occurs in the lungs
    • The exhaled air is used as a power source for speech
  37. Tidal breathing
    • Quiet breating
    • Breathing to sustain life
  38. Speech breathing
    • Inhalations occur at controlled times
    • Inhalation shortens, exhalation lengthens
    • Frequently requires active muscle contraction during exhalation
    • Air exchange is greater than in tidal breathing
  39. Phonatory System
    • Converts airflow energy to sound
    • Includes trachea, larynx, and pharynx
  40. Larynx
    • Primary structure in phonatory system (creates voice)
    • Located in air passageway between throat and trachea
    • Together with epiglottis prevents substances from entering the trachea
  41. Pharynx
    • Connects oral and nasal cavity
    • Passageway where sound comes up and outward
  42. Hyoid bone
    U shaped bone that suspends from larynx
  43. Thyroid cartilage
    Forms front and side walls of larynx
  44. Cricoid cartilage
    • Sits above the first tracheal ring, just below the thyroid and above the trachea
    • Attaches to arytenoids in back
  45. Arytenoid cartilages
    • Points of attachment for the vocal cords
    • Responsible for adduction (brings vocal folds together) and abduction (separates vocal folds) of vocal cords
  46. Epiglottis
    • Attached to thyroid cartilage
    • Prevents fodd from entering larynx during swallowing
  47. Glottis
    The space between the vocal folds
  48. Phonation
    • Sound produced by vocal fold vibration
    • The opening of the vocal folds during vibration is NOT due to muscular contraction
  49. Speech production process
    • Vocal folds come together (adduct)
    • Air pressure builds up below folds (due to air pressure generated by the system: exhalation)
    • When air pressure builds up below folds (subglottal pressure) > pressure above folds- vocal folds are "blown" open in wave-like manner
    • Decrease of air pressure causes vocal folds to come back together
    • Movement of the articulators (jaw, tongue, teeth, lips, palate) shapes the air into particular speech sounds
  50. Articulatory system
    • Manipulates airflow and voice that was channeled through phonatory system
    • Creates specific speech sounds
  51. Structures in articulatory system
    • Mandible (houses lower teeth and forms floor of mouth)
    • Teeth (chewing; involved in the production of dental speech sounds)
    • Hard palate- roof of mouth and floor of nose (maxilla- houses the upper teeth and forms the alveolar ridge and palatine process)
    • Soft palate (velum; moveable part of palate that opens and closes the nasal cavity from the oral cavity, the tip of the soft palate is called the uvula)
    • Tongue, lips, and cheeks (important for production of most speech sounds)
    • Pharynx (passageway connecting the nasal and oral cavities)
  52. Alveolar ridge
    Bumpy ridge behind the upper front teeth (anterior portion of hard palate)
  53. Resonance system
    • Filters sounds produced by larynx through pharynx, nasal cavityn (m, n, ng; velum lowered), and oral cavity (oral resonance for most speech sounds; velum raised)
    • Gives the voice its distinctive quality (distinctive to each person)
  54. Central Nervous System
    • Brain- cerebrum, brainstem, cerebellum
    • Spinal cord- collection of neuron cell bodies located within the spinal column; nerves of spinal cord synapse with the perpheral nervouse system
  55. Cerebrum (cerebral cortex) (CNS)
    • Each hemisphere controls the opposite side of the body (sensory and motor functions are contralateral)
    • Each hemisphere has four lobes (frontal, parietal, occipital, and temporal)
    • Longitudinal fissure separates the cerebrum into right and left hemispheres (fissure of rolando- separates frontal from parietal lobe; fissure of sylvius- separates frontal from temporal lobe)
    • Hemispheres are connected internally by the corpus callosum (pathway through which the two hemispheres communicate)
    • The top layer of each hemisphere is called the cortex (gray matter)
    • Responsible for sensing and interpreting input from many sources
    • Mantains cognitive functioning (thinking, problem solving, creating, rationalizing, planning)
  56. Gyri (gyrus) (CNS)
    Ridges in cortex of cerebrum
  57. Sulci (sulcus) (CNS)
    • Grooves in cortex of cerebrum
    • Deep sulci are called fissures
  58. Frontal lobe (CNS)
    • Motor cortex- activating and coordinating movement
    • Broca's area- important in language production (in the left hemisphere in most people)
    • Prefrontal areas- personality, impulse control
    • Controlling executive functions
  59. Parietal lobe (CNS)
    • Somatosensory areas- sense of touch, pressure, and positions of the body
    • Perceiving and integrating sensory and perceptual behavior
  60. Occipital lobe (CNS)
    • Visual cortex
    • Receives and processes visual information
  61. Temporal lobe (CNS)
    • Auditory cortex- Heschle's gyrus (processes sounds)
    • Wernicke's area- involved in language comprehension (in the left hemisphere in most people)
  62. Brainstem (CNS)
    • The lower extension of the brain where it connects to the spinal cord
    • Conduit between rest of brain and spinal cord
    • Consists of afferent (sensory) and efferent (motor) nerve tracts
    • Relay station for nerves supplying the head and face
  63. Cerebellum (CNS)
    • Attached to the back of the brainstem
    • Coordination of motor movements
    • Regulates motor and muscular activity
    • Maintaining muscle tone
    • Monitors movement range and strength
    • Maintenance of posture
  64. Peripheral Nervous System
    • System of nerves connected to brainstem and spinal cord
    • Carries sensory info to the CNS
    • Carries motor commands away from CNS
    • Controls both voluntary and involuntary activity
    • 31 pairs of spinal nerves (reflexes, volitional sensory and motor activity in the body)
    • 12 pairs of cranial nerves (more important for speech than spinal nerves, carries information about 4 of 5 sense, input to muscles of the face and neck)
  65. Cranial Nerves (PNS)
    • Sensory nerves- carry sensory impulses to the brain
    • Motor nerves- carry motor impulses from brain to muscles
    • Muxed nerves- carry both sensory and motor impulses
    • 12 pairs- 7 important for communication functions
    • Originate from brainstem
Card Set
CSD Intro quiz 1
Communication Science and Disorders