chapter 1

  1. theory
    general statement explaining natural phenomena that is based on proven hypothesis
  2. Phase I trial
    toxicity and metabolism tested in healthy human volunteers
  3. Phase II trial
    effectiveness and toxicity tested in target population
  4. Phase III trial
    widespread test of drug in diverse population
  5. Phase IV trial
    drug tested for other potential use
  6. homeostasis
    is maintainence of a state of dynamic constancy
  7. dynamic constancy
    in which conditions are stabilized above and below a physiological set point by negative feedback loops
  8. Negative feedback loops
    1. sensor
    2. integrating center
    3. effector
    • 1. detects deviation from set point
    • 2. determine response
    • 3. produces response
  9. Regulatory mechanisms:
    1. intrinsic control
    2. extrinsic control
    • 1. control is built into organ being regulated
    • 2. control comes from outside of organ (nervous, endocrine system)
  10. Positive feedback
    amplify changes
  11. primary tissues
    muscle tissue, nervous tissue, epithelial tissue, connective tissue
  12. muscle tissue
    • specialized for contraction
    • skeletal, cardiac, smooth
  13. Skeletal muscle
    striated, voluntary, formed by fusion of embroynic myoblasts, individually controlled, parallel
  14. Cardiac muscle
    have myocardial cells - short, involuntary, have intercalcated discs btw cells - provide mechanical and electrical interconnections, not individually controlled
  15. smooth msucle
    not striated, involuntary, controlled by ANS
  16. nervous tissue
    • have neurons and supporting or glial cells
    • specialized for conducting electircal signals
    • have cell body, axon and dendrites
  17. Epithelial Tissue
    • lines and covers body surface
    • squamous, columnar and cuboidal
  18. membranes
    • simple: one cell think; for transport
    • stratified: numerous layers; for protection
  19. non-keratinized stratified squamous
    contain living cells
  20. keratinized stratified squamous
    have outer layer of dead cells, contain water-resistant keratin
  21. junctional complexes
    increase strength and create barrier of the cells
  22. basement membrane
    Separated from underlying tissue
  23. exocrine glands
    dervied from epithelial cells, secrete into epithelium via ducts
  24. acini
    Whose secretion is controlled by surrounding myoepithelialcells
  25. loose connective tissue
    consists of collagen (fibrousproteins) and tissue fluid
  26. Adipose
    specialized for fat synthesis, breakdown and storage
  27. cartilage
    for support and protection, precursor of bone, made of chondrocytes and elastic extracellular material
  28. bone
    concentriclayers of calcifiedmaterial

    • Osteoblasts: bone forming cells
    • Osteocytes: trapped inactive osteoblasts
    • Osteoclasts; bone reabsorbing cells
  29. system
    groups oforgans working together tomaintain homeostasis
  30. Skin—The Largest Organ
    • outer layer of protective cornified epidermis
    • Next layer is dermis , contains connective tissue,glands, blood vessels, nerves
    • Inner layer is hypodermis, which contains fat
  31. extracellular compartments
    composed of blood plasma and interstitial fluid or tissue fluid
  32. intracellular and extracellular compartments
    Separated by cell’s plasma membrane
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chapter 1