what is genetics
the study of DNA and its effects on the characteristics on an organism
What are the sub-disisplines of genetics?
- transmission genetics
- molecular genetics
- population genetics
- quantitive genetics
Transmission genetics or called classical genetics?(Gregor Mendel)
The study of the transfer of characteristics from one generation to the next.(mendalion genetics)
Molecular Genetics?(Watson and Crick)
Concentrates on the DNA molecule it self and on the protien and the RNA that are made from that molecule.
population genetics?(Discreat varations)
- looking at groups of organisms, measuring frequencys and how often a genotype or phenotype or allele occurs.
- Traits that are controlled by one or two genes
- EX. can count numbers of individuals in each group.
Quantitative genetics?(continuous varation)
- Looking at groups of organisms, measuring frequencys and how often a genotype or phenotype or allele occurs.
- Deals with multigenetics or controled by many different genes.
- EX. people hieght.
Central Dogma?(Molecular genetics)
- DNA is able to make more DNA(replication)
- DNA is able to form the molecule RNA(transcription)
- RNA is used to make protiens(translation)
- RNA is used to make DNA(reverse transcription)
- Need to be able to draw pic in notes.
Techniques used to study genetics?
- Choose model organism
- Mating,cytology,Biochemestry-genetic dissection(beadle and tadum), direct analysis
- Genetics data ases
- Taking DNA from one organism and inserting into another organism.
- EX. Like insulin into ecoli
Genetic Data Bases?
- NCBI(national center for biotechnoligy information)
- PubMed(published med papers)
- OMIM(online mendalion Inheritance in men)
- GenBank(stores all DNA sequences that have been discovered)
- Blast(used for comparing one sequence to another)
- Inherited-diseases that are passed on because of one or more faulty alleles,(type 2 diabetes, color blindness, cicle cell anema)
- Soamtic-mutation that happen in body cells, not inherited(cancer)
- Chromosomal-Down syndrome, which happens because of an abnormal number of chromosomes.
- has true nucleous and membrane bound organelles.
- domain is called Eukarea
- no nucleous and membrane enclosed organelles
- Domains-Archea, Bateria
The alleles that are carried by a paticular cell.
The physical characteristics that you observe expressed by the genotype.
- A section of DNA that can be transcribed.
- EX. mRNA translated into protien.
Different forms that a gene can exsist in.
- All of the DNA found within a single cell.
- Diploid organisms have two genomes in there cell.
All of the protiens that can be made by a specific cell.
Two copies of a genome.
1 copy of a genome
The two alleles for a gene are the same(P1 generation).
The two alles for a gene are different(F1 generation)
A phenotype which occurs when there is either one or two copies of the allele present.
A phenotype that occurs only when there is no dominant allele present.
What is a Chromosome?
sequence of DNA that contains genes and an origin of replication plus its associated protiens.
is a chromosome in its uncondensed form
unreplicated chromosome containing one molecule of DNA, seen in G1 phase or G0
replicated chromosomes seen in G2 phase.
only occur in mieosis, when two homologous dyads come together, crossing over occurs here, cant be seen in mieosis2
One half of a dyad or replicated chromosome.
Chromosomes that are the same size, shape and carry the same genes, but they have different alleles.
Are sister chromatids identical?
yes they are id3entical unless a mutation has occured during the prosess of replication.
Last part to replicate, looks constricted.
Ends of chromosomes?
centromere is right in the middle.
offset about 3/4 of the way up.
Offset about 7/8 of the way up, probably wont be on test.
centromere is right on the end of the chromosome cant really see constriction, only has one arm.
short arm of chromosomes
long arm of chromosomes.
Chromosome theory of inheritance?
(sutton and boveri) the partical or gene that were described by mendal are carried on chromosomes.
is a picture of the chromosomes from a single cell
- Is a description of where genes are located on a chromosomes based on what the chromosome looks like under a microscope.
- Units are arms and bands
- produced by test crosses to produce a linkage map.
- units are map units (represents 1% recombination) used to be called centimorgans .
most accurate, units for phisical maps are base pairs.
- all chromosomes other then sex chromosomes.
- humans have 2 pair
how many chromosomes do humans have?
the number of possible ways for an event divided by the total number of possible events
dont influence each other
The product rule?
the probability that two independent events will occur at the same time is equal to the product of there individual probability. "AND" is the hint.
The sum law (mutually exclusive events)?
- the probability of observing two or more possible mutually exclusive events is equal to the sum of there probability. "OR" hint.
- EX. roll one dye what is the probability of getting an even number. 1/6+1/6+1/6=3/6
What 3 abilities do genetic materails have to have to be genetic material?
what characteristics of the DNA molecule allow it to carry out those three function?
- complimentary base pairing
- specific binding of proteins to specific sequences.