Med terms chapter 2

  1. anabolism
    process of building up complex materials (proteins) from simple materials
  2. catabolism
    process of breaking down complex materials (foods) to form simpler substances and release energy
  3. cell membrane
    structure surrounding and protecting the cell.
  4. chromosomes
    rod shaped structures in the nucleus that contain regions of DNA called genes
  5. cytoplasm
    all the material that is outside the nucleus and yet contained within the cell membrane
  6. DNA
    chemical found within each chromosome
  7. endoplasmic reticulum
    structure (canals) with the cytoplasm
  8. genes
    regions of DNA within each chromosome
  9. karyotype
    picture of chromosomes in the nucleus of the cell
  10. metabolism
    the total of the chemical processes in a cell
  11. mitochondria
    structures in the cytoplasm in which foods are burned to release energy
  12. nucleus
    control center of the cell
  13. digestive system
    mouth, pharynx, esophagus, stomach. intestines, liver, gallbladder, urinary bladder, urethra
  14. urinary or excretory system
    kidneys, ureters, urinary bladder, urethra
  15. respiratory system
    nose, pharynx, larynx, trachea, bronchial tubes, lungs
  16. reproductive system
    ovariers, fallopian tubes, uterus, vagina, mammary glands

    testes, urethra, penis, prostate gland
  17. endocrine system
    thyroid gland, pituitary gland, sex glands, adrenal glands, pancreas, parathyroid glands
  18. nervous system
    brain, spinal cord, nerves
  19. circulatory system
    heart, bood vessels, lymphatic vessels and nodes, spleen, thymus gland
  20. musculoskeletal system
    muscles, bones and joints
  21. skin and sense organs
    skin, hair, nails, sweat glands, and sebaceous glands; eye, ear, nose and tounge
  22. adipose tissue
    collection of fat cells
  23. cartilage
    flexible connective tissue attached to bones and joints
  24. epithelial cells
    skin cells that cover the exteranal body surface and line the internal surfaces of organs
  25. histologist
    specialist in the study of tissues
  26. larynx
    voice box located at the upper part of the trachea
  27. pharynx
  28. pituitary gland
    endocrine gland at the base of the brain
  29. thyroid gland
    endocrine gland that surrounds the trachea in the neck
  30. trachea
  31. ureter
    on of two tubes each leading from a single kidney to the urinary bladder
  32. urethra
    tube from the urinary bladder to the outside of the body
  33. uterus
    the womb
  34. viscera
    internal organs
  35. cranial cavity
    brain, pituitary gland
  36. thoracic cavity
    lungs, heart, esophagus, trachea, bronchial tubes, thymus gland, aorta
  37. pleural cavity
    space between the folds of the pleura surrounding each lung
  38. mediastinum
    centrally located area outside of and between the lungs
  39. abdominal cavity
    the peritoneum is the double folded membrane surrounding the abdominal cavity
  40. diaphram
    a muscular wall divides the abdominal and thoracic cavities
  41. pelvic cavity
    portions of the small and large intestines, rectum, urinary bladdar, urethra and ureters; uretus and vagina in the female
  42. spinal cavity
    nerves of the spinal cord
  43. peritoneum
    double layered membrane surrounding the abdominal organs
  44. pleura
    double layered membrane surrounding each lung
  45. dorsal (posterior)
    pertaining to the back
  46. ventral (anterior)
    pertaining to the front
  47. hypochondriac
    right and upper regions beneath the ribs
  48. epigastric
    middle upper region above the stomach
  49. lumbar
    right and left middle regions near the waist
  50. umbilical
    central region near the navel
  51. inguinal
    right and left lower regions near the groin also called iliac regions
  52. hypogastric
    middle lower region below the umbilical region
  53. RUQ
    right upper quadrant
  54. LUQ
    left upper quadrant
  55. RLQ
    Right lower quadrant
  56. LLQ
    left lower quadrant
  57. cervical
    neck region C1-C7
  58. thoracic
    Chest region T1-T12
  59. lumbar
    loin (waist) region L1-L5
  60. sacral
    region of the sacrum S1-S5
  61. Coccygeal
    Region of the coccyx - tailbone
  62. vertebra
    single backbone
  63. vertebae
  64. spinal column
    bone tissues surrounding the spinal cavity
  65. spinal cord
    nervous tissue within the spinal cavity
  66. disk-disc
    pad of cartilage between vertebrae
  67. Deep
    away from the surface
  68. superficial
    on the surface
  69. proximal
    near the point of attchement to the trunk or near the beginning of a structure
  70. distal
    far from the point of attachment to the trunk or far from the beginning of a structure
  71. inferior
    below another structure
  72. superior
    above another structure
  73. medial
    pertaining to the middle or nearer the medial plane of the body
  74. lateral
    pertaining to the side
  75. supine
    lying on the back
  76. prone
    lying on the belly
  77. frontal (coronal) plane
    vertical plane dividing the body or structure into anterior and posterior portions
  78. sagittal (lateral) plane
    lengthwise vertical plane dividing the body or structure into right and left side
  79. transverse plane (cross-sectional or axial)
    horizontal plane running across the body parallel to the ground
  80. abdomin/o
  81. adip/o
  82. anter/o
  83. bol/o
    to cast (throw)
  84. cervic/o
    neck (of the body or if the uterus)
  85. chondr/o
    cartilage (type of connective tissue)
  86. chrom/o
  87. coccyg/o
    coccyx- tailbone
  88. crani/o
  89. cyt/o
  90. dist/o
    far, distant
  91. dors/o
    back portion of the body
  92. hist/o
  93. ili/o
    ilium (part of the pelvic bone)
  94. inguin/o
  95. kary/o
  96. later/o
  97. lumb/o
    lower back
  98. medi/o
  99. nucle/o
  100. pelv/i
    pelvis, hip region
  101. poster/o
    back, behind
  102. proxim/o
  103. sarc/o
  104. sarc/o
  105. spin/o
    spine, backbone
  106. thel/o
  107. thorac/o
  108. trache/o
    trachea, windpipe
  109. umbilic/o
    navel, umbilicus
  110. ventr/o
    belly side of the body
  111. vertebr/o
    vertebra(e), backbone(s)
  112. viscer/o
    internal organs
  113. ana-
  114. cata-
  115. epi-
  116. hypo-
  117. inter-
  118. meta-
  119. -eal
    pertaining to
  120. -iac
    pertaining to
  121. -ior
    pertaining to
  122. -ism
    process, condition
  123. -ose
    pertaining to, full of
  124. plasm-
  125. -somes
  126. -type
    picture, classification
Card Set
Med terms chapter 2
medical terminology chapter two