AP Exam 1

  1. What are the specialties in physiology?
    cellular, organ, systemic, pathological
  2. What is autoregulation of homeostasis?
    • inside body
    • automatically adjusts to enviro changes
    • sweating in 106o weather
  3. What is extrinsic regulation of homeostasis?
    • stimulation by endocrine or nervous system
    • exercise
  4. What are the homestatic regulatory mechanisms?
    • variable: (something that changes)
    • receptor: (a sensor)
    • control center: ( receive & process info then sends it out)
    • effector: (responds to signal received)
    • set point: ( desired value/range)
  5. What is negative feedback?
    reverses a stimulus
  6. What is positive feedback?
    enhances orig stimulus
  7. What are the 5 things of cell theory?
    • cells are building blocks
    • cells come from pre-existing cells
    • fund unit of structure
    • same in chemical comp
    • maintains homeostasis @ cellular level
  8. What is extracellular/interstitial fluid?
    water median outside the cell
  9. What is cytoplasm/ cytosol/ organelles?
    • cytoplasm: all contents in the cell
    • cytosol: liquid in the cell
    • organelles: all structures in the cell
  10. What is the plasma membrane? & its primary functions?
    • outer boundary of the cell
    • protection
    • structural support
    • semi-permiable
    • physical seperation
    • sensitivity to environment
  11. Define: phospholipid bilayer
    2 layers of phospholipids
  12. What are phospholipids?
    • hydrophilic phosphorus head on outside & inside of cell
    • hydrophobic tails on inside of plasma membrane
  13. Define: integral proteins
    • part of membrane structure
    • not easily removed w/o causing damage
  14. Define: peripheral
    • bound to inner or outer surface of membrane
    • easily seperated
  15. Define: anchoring proteins
    attach plasma membrane to other structures & stabilize its position
  16. Define: recognition proteins (identifiers)
    cells of immune system identify other cells as normal or abnormal
  17. Define: enzymes
    increases reactions in the body
  18. Define: receptor proteins
    sensitive to specific ions & hormones
  19. Define: carrier proteins
    bind solutes & transport them across the plasma membrane
  20. Define: channel proteins
    allow substances to cross from one side to another
  21. Give the structure and function of the cytoskeleton
    • internal structure of cell, filament & tubules
    • support, strength, flexibility

    manuf warehouse - walls
  22. Give the structure and function of the microvilli
    • fingerlike extensions of cell membrane
    • increase surface area of cell

    in factory - increase # of workers, more work will get done
  23. Give the structure and function of the centrioles
    • short cylindrical structures of microtubules, in a pair, 2 pairs per cell
    • in cellular division - produce spindle fibers
  24. Give the structure and function of the centrosome
    • cytoplasm surrounding centrioles
    • helps in movements of chromosomes in cellular division
  25. Give the structure and function of the cilia
    • hairlike extensions on outer surface of cell
    • help move material across outer surface
    • move debris

    conveyor belts in factory
  26. Give the structure and function of the ribosomes
    • 2 subunits - lg & sm, scattered throughout cytoplasm, roaming, some fixed on ER
    • protein synthesis (make protein)
  27. Give the structure and function of the proteasomes
    • protein & digestive enzymes
    • remove & recycle old damaged proteins
  28. Give the structure and function of the Rough endoplasmic reticulum
    • ribsosomes on outside network of channels
    • modify & package proteins together

    post office (sort & distribute)
  29. Give the structure and function of the smooth endoplasmic reticulum
    • smooth surface (no ribosomes) network of channels in cytoplasm
    • lipid & carbohydrate synthesis, hormones, synthesize & store glycerides & glycogen
  30. Give the structure and function of the golgi apparatus
    • 5-6 stacks of flattened membraneous structures
    • transport proteins from ER & sends toother areas where needed
    • membrane renewal\

    FedEX truck - transporting pkgs
  31. Give the structure and function of the lysosome
    • vesicle that contains powerful digesting enzymes
    • intracellular digestion (cleans up old organelles)

    trash collector
  32. Give the structure and function of the peroxisome
    • vesicles containing digestive enzymes
    • break down fatty acids, organic compounds, neutralize toxic chemicals, free radicals

    hazmat crew
  33. Give the structure and function of the mitochondria
    • 2 membranes, folded inner membrane
    • energy production
    • ATP is produced here

    electrial outlet
  34. Give the structure and function of the nucleus
    • largest structure in the cell, double membrane, DNA
    • control center

    boss of warehouse
  35. Give the structure and function of the nucleolus
    • dense region, RNA, enzymes & proteins
    • ribosomal RNA (rRNA) synthesis, assembly of ribosomes

    factory for ribosomal prod
  36. What is protein synthesis?
    assembling of functional polypeptides in the cytoplasm
  37. Define: permeability
    property of cell
  38. Define: impermeable
    nothings moving; nothing can pass
  39. Define: freely permeable
    anything can pass
  40. Define: selectively permeable
    selective things can pass through
  41. What is the passive process?
    door is open, easy to get across membrane
  42. What is the active process?
    door is closed, use ATP to get across membrane
  43. Define: diffusion
    movement of high concentration to low concentration solutes
  44. What are the factors that affect the rate of diffusion?
    • distance- shorter the faster rate of diff
    • temp- higher temp faster diff
    • size- smaller faster diff
    • gradient size- lg gradient faster diff
    • electrical forces- oppo forces diffuse faster
  45. What material diffuse across a cell membrane?
    • water
    • sodium chloride
  46. What is simple diffusion?
    alcohol, fatty acids, steroids, oxygen, carbon dioxide, fat soluble drugs easily diffuse across membrane
  47. What is channel-mediated diffusion?
    • water can pass through a channel easily
    • ions may pass through depending on size etc
  48. What is osmosis?
    • movement of water
    • low concent to high concent
  49. __________ & ________ fluids are solutions that contain a variety of dissolved materials.
    • intracellular
    • extracellular
  50. In osmosis the membrane is ___________ permeable. _________permeable to water but not freely permeable to solutes.
    • selectively
    • freely
  51. In osmosis, water passively diffuses ________ the solution with higher concentration of solutes , b/c that's where the concentration of water is lower.
  52. Define: osmotic pressure
    force of osmotic water movement
  53. Define: hydrostatic pressure
    fluid pressure
  54. Define: carrier mediated transport
    any substance that can't possibly diffuse
  55. What are the characteristics of carrier mediated transport?
    • specificity- carry only specific functions
    • saturation llimits- availability
    • regulation- binding of molecules, hormones
  56. Most carrier proteins can only carry one type of molecule/ion across the membrane, but there are some exceptions: .... they are
    • cotransport (transports 2 diff subst in same dir)
    • counter transport (1 subst in, 1 moving out)
  57. Define: facilitated diffusion
    movement of substance across plasma membrane by means of a carrier protein
  58. Define: active transport
    requires energy (ATP) to move substance across
  59. Define: sodium potassium exchange pump
    • homeostasis within the cell depends on the ejection of sodium ions and the recapture of lost potassium ions
    • need ATP
  60. Define: secondary active transport
    • move substrate across concentration gradient
    • (dont need ATP)
  61. define: vesicular transport (bulk transport)
    allows material to move in and out of cells but must be transported in a vesicle
  62. What is endocytosis?
    materials pkg & move into the cell
  63. In endocytosis what is receptor-mediated?
    bringing specific substances into the cell
  64. In endocytosis what is pinocytosis "cell drinking"?
    bringing in extracellular fluid
  65. In endocytosis what is phagocytosis "cell eating"?
    engulfing large particles from outside to inside
  66. Define: exocytosis
    going out of cell
  67. What is transmembrane potential?
    • potential differences across a plasma membrane
    • in mV
  68. What is resting membrane potential?
    the transmembrane potential of a normal cell under homeostasis
  69. What is the role of the plasma membrane?
    • acts as a dam
    • keeps oppo charges away from each other
  70. In interphase what is G0?
    cell is at rest
  71. In interphase what is G1?
    prepare for division
  72. In interphase what is S?
    chromosomes duplicate
  73. In interphase what is G2?
    double checking
  74. What is mitosis?
    dividing of chromosomes
  75. What happens in prophase?
    • centrioles produce spindle fibers
    • nuclear envelope disappers
    • chromosomes floating around
  76. What happens in Metaphase?
    chromosomes line up at the middle
  77. What happens in anaphase?
    splitting apart of chromosomes
  78. What happens in telophase?
    • chromosomes condense
    • new nuclear envelope (2 nuclei)
    • end of mitosis
  79. What happens in cytokinesis?
    seperation of 2 daughter cells
  80. What are the 6 functions of the skin?
    • protection (underlying tissues,organs)
    • body temp reg ( insulation, release heat)
    • cutaneous sensations (touch pressure, pain)
    • vit D synthesis (calcium metab)
    • excretion (salts & water)
    • storage of lipids ( insulation, protection)
  81. What is the cutaneous membrane?
    skin : -epidermis & dermis
  82. What is the hypodermis?
    • subcutaneous layer
    • fatty layer of skin
    • anchors skin to body
    • energy reserve
    • insulator
  83. What are the 4 cells in the epidermis?
    • keratinocytes ( body most abund epith cell, sev layers, lg amts of keratin)
    • melanocytes (produce pigment melanin)
    • merkel cells (tactile cells, translate sensory resposes)
    • langerhan's cells ( participate in immune response)
  84. What is thick skin vs thin skin?
    • thick - palms & soles, 5 layers thick
    • thin- covers most of body, 4 layers
  85. What is stratum germinativum (basale)?
    • very bottom layer
    • 1 single layer of cells
    • does mitosis regularly
  86. What are epidermal ridges and dermal papillae?
    • ridges and vallies found in thick skin
    • fingerprints & foot prints
  87. What is the stratum spinosum?
    • 8-10 layers thick
    • begins to shrink a little
    • still dividing a little
  88. What is the stratum granulosum?
    • 3-5 layers
    • stopped dividing
    • produces lots of keratin
    • cells cont to shrink
    • nuclei & organelles begin to die
    • (last place you'll see anything living)
  89. What is the stratum luacidum?
    • flattened, densely packed
    • thick skin only
  90. What is the stratum corneum?
    • 15-30 layers
    • dead, calcified, flake off
    • 75% of epidermis thickness
    • water-proofing system
    • act as protective layer
  91. What is the dermis?
    • strong, flexible connec tissue
    • blood vessels
    • nerve fibers
  92. What are the 2 layers of the dermis? Explain each.
    • papillary (capillaries, lymphatics, sensory neurons that supply surface of skin)
    • reticular (deep to papillary, roots, hairs, thick)
  93. What is the dermal strength and elasticity?
    collagen (strength) and elastic fibers (elasticity)
  94. Water content in the skin helps maintain its ___________ and _________. Known as "skin tugor".
    • flexibility
    • resilience
  95. Aging, horomones and UV radiation, damage ______ in the dermis, resulting in _________.
    • elastin
    • wrinkles
  96. What is Dermatitis?
    • inflammation of the dermis
    • primarily involves the papillary layer
  97. What is melanin?
    brown, yellow-brown or black pigment
  98. Racial differences in melanin production is caused by:
    color and amt of melanin produced
  99. Freckles are:
    patches of accumulated melanin
  100. The effect of UV lights on melanin production increases melanin production & makes skin _________ to prevent UV light from entering the body.
  101. What is carotene?
    • orange-yellow pigment
    • usually in fair skinned indiv
    • hypodermis
  102. What is hemoglobin?
    • reddish pigment
    • related to blood
  103. What is cyanosis?
    • blue/purple
    • reductions in blood supply
    • lips, nail beds
  104. What is pallor?
    • pale
    • lack of reddish skin tone
    • anemia, inadq blood flow
    • lips, nail beds, pink part of eye
  105. What is Jaundice?
    • yellow
    • live is not excreting enough bile
    • often found in babies
    • whites of eyes, skin
  106. What is bronzing (addison's disease or tumor of pituitary glands)?
    • skin darkens
    • melanocytes stimulating hormone excreted in excess
    • produces more melanin
  107. What is the function of hair?
    • sensory stimulation
    • protection
    • insulation
    • filtration (catching debris)
  108. What are the structures of the hair?
    • shaft (part you can see)
    • root ( anchors hair down in dermis)
    • hair bulb (onion shape base)
    • papilla (point or very bottom of hair bulb)
    • matix (reproduces hair)
  109. What is the arrector pili muscles?
    • causes hair to stand on end
    • goosebumps
  110. What is the root hair plexus?
    sensory nerves that allow you to feel things before thye reach your skin
  111. What are vellus hairs? (peach fuzz)
    • covers main part of body
    • armpit, pubic area until puberty
  112. What are terminal hairs?
    • heavy, more deeply pigmented, sometimes curly, course
    • head, eyelashes, eyebrows, pubic hair, legs, arms, armpits,
  113. What is club hair?
    end of growth cycle, follicle becomes inactive and stops growing
  114. Define: alopecia
    partial/complete lack of hair
  115. What are other causes of hair loss?
    • stress
    • fever
    • surgery
    • emotional trauma
    • drugs
    • dietray factors
    • radiation
    • hormonal factors
  116. What are sebaceous (oil) glands?
    • everywhere on body but palms and soles (everywhere theres a hair)
    • secretes: sebum
    • softens skin, moisturizes hair, prevents water loss, inhinit bacteria growth
    • not assoc w/ hair, face, chest, neck, back
    • secrete on surface of skin
  117. What is cradle cap/dandruff?
    • overactive oil glands
    • inflammation
    • dried up oil that flakes off
  118. What are apocrine sweat glands?
    • located: armpits, groin
    • secrete into a hair follicle
    • sticky, cloudy, pot odorus
    • good nutrient source for bacteria
    • stimulated by sex hormones, sex
  119. What are merocrine sweat glands?
    • located: palms, soles, forehead
    • secretes on surface of skin
    • mostly water and some NaCl
    • thermoregulation
  120. What are cereminous glands?
    • passageway of external ear
    • produces earwax
  121. What are the structures of the nail?
    • nail body (visible portion)
    • nail bed (area of epidermis nail body covers)
    • nail root ( not visible, near bone)
    • lunula ( pale cresent @ bottom on nail)
    • eponychium (cuticle)
Card Set
AP Exam 1
Exam 1