Microbial Pathogens Intro S3M1

  1. What are the medically important microbial groups
    • Bacteria (prokaryotic)
    • Viruses (non cellular)
    • Fungi (Eukaryotic)
    • Protozoa (Eukaryotic)
    • Helminths (Eukaryotic)
  2. Coccus
  3. Bacillus
    Rod shape
  4. Pleomorphic
    More then one shape
  5. Phage
    Viruses infecting bacteria
  6. Ribosomes in bacteria make them good drug targets, why
    They are structurally different from humans containing 70S (30S and 50S) ribosomes
  7. The capsid of a virus is formed by, and made up of
    • Host cell derived
    • Lipoprotein envelope
    • Viral Glycoproteins
  8. Ergosterol
    Fungal membrane sterol
  9. Hyphae
    Filamentous cells of mold
  10. Thermally dimorphic fungi
    These fungi can convert to yeast form to filamentous form and back
  11. Yeast
    Single cell fungi that reproduce via budding
  12. What are the classes of protozoans
    • Amaeba
    • Flagellates
    • Ciliates
    • Sporozoa
    • (All are Unicellular)
  13. What is the difference between PrPC and PrPSC
    • PrPc are normal prions
    • PrPsc are infections prions
  14. Prions cause what type of disease
  15. Virulence
    Quantitative ability of a microbe to cause disease
  16. Virulence factor
    Variety of microbial products/mechanisms that cause disease
  17. What is a common opportunist found in hospitalized patients
    Pseudomonas aeruginosa
  18. Pathogen
    Microbes that cause disease
  19. Pathogenicity
    Ability of an infectious agent to cause disease
  20. Strict pathogens
    Microbes that will always cause disease
  21. Opportunistic pathogens
    Only cause disease when something out of the ordinary happens
  22. What are some examples of events that can cause opportunistic pathogens to harm the body
    • Surgery
    • Disrupted flora due to antibiotics
    • Immune system deficiencies
  23. Most human infections are caused by
    Opportunistic infections
  24. What are three important Opportunistic pathogens
    • Staphylococcus aureus
    • Escherichia coli
    • Clostridium sp.
  25. Mutualism
    Benefit to both members
  26. Commensalism
    No apparent benefit or harm to either
  27. What are some common entries for Staphylococcus aureus
    • Skin & Resp. tract
    • Causing cutaneous infections and endocarditis
  28. What is believed to be the advantage of Probiotics
    Prevention of diseases caused by opportunists by interfering with adhesion and enhancing the immune response
  29. What microbes are most commonly used as probiotics
    • Lactobacilli (rhamnosus, acidophilus)
    • Bifidobacteria
    • Saccharomyces (yeast)
  30. What are some conditions that probiotics have shown to be successful for treating
    • Diarrhea in children
    • Prevention of C. difficile caused
    • IBC
    • Prevention of allergies in newborns
  31. What are the steps of the infectious cycle
    • Adhesion and colonization
    • Invasion
    • Replication
    • Transmission (new host)
  32. What are Koch's postulates
    • Identify in all disease organisms)
    • Isolate and grow in a pure culture
    • Introduce into healthy model
    • Reisolate from model and compare to original
  33. What are the exceptions to the Koch postulates
    • Not culturable
    • Not universally disease causing
    • Acquired virulence factors
    • No animal model
    • Polymicrobial disease
  34. What is the molecular Koch postulates
    • Identify: phenotype/gene in a pathogenic strains but not others
    • Alter: Gene manipulation should alter virulence
    • Restore: Gene recovery should restore virulence
  35. What is the difference between gram positive and gram negative
    Positive contains lipoteichcic acids protruding from a thick cell wall of peptidoglycan all overlying a bilayer plasma membrane

    Negative has a very thin peptidoglycan layer found below an outer membrane with no lipoteichcic acid protruding from its surface
  36. What are the steps to gram stains
    • Heat Fixation
    • Crystal violet
    • Iodine
    • Decolarization
    • Counter stain safranin
  37. What are the color differences following a gram stain between negative and positive
    • G+ purple
    • G- Red
Card Set
Microbial Pathogens Intro S3M1