Chapter 51:Behavioral Ecology

  1. what is behavior?
    how organisms respond to particular stimuli from the environment
  2. Two fundamental levels:
    • 1.Proximate(Mechanistic): how actions occur
    • 2.Ultimate(evolutionary): why actions occur
  3. Fixed action patterns(FAP):
    • highly inflexible, stereotyped behavior like a kangaroo rat's jump back
    • -Type of innate behavior:Inherited
  4. Foraging
    when animals seek food
  5. Optimal foraging
    animals maximixe their feeding efficiency
  6. Examples of deceitful communication:
    • -The anglerfish has an appendage and it is use to attract prey
    • -Female firelies flash the courtship signal of another species, then eat males that repsond
  7. Altruism
    behavior that has a fitness cost to the individual exhibiting the behavior and a fitness benefit to the recipient of the behavior.(self-sacrificing behavior)
  8. Kin selection:
    -alarm callers put themselves in danger in order to warn the pack
  9. Hamilton's rule
    • C the fitness cost to the actor
    • B the fitness benefit to the beneficiary
    • R the coefficient of relatedness
    • Br>C
  10. Inclusive fitness
    combination of direct and indirect fitness components
  11. Reciprocal altruism
    • Non-relatives helping individuals who have either helped them in the past or are likely to help them in the future
    • -Chimps groom other members of the group
    • -bats regurgitate blood meals to non-related bats that were in danger of starving
  12. what do proximate explanations of behavior focus on?
    -genetic, neurological, and hormonal mechanisms of behavior
  13. what unit do biologists use when analyzing the costs and benefits of behavior?
    -fitness:the ability to survive and produce offspring
  14. what is "reciprocal about reciprocal altruism?
    -it is based on an exchange of fitness benefits
  15. what does hamilton's rule specify?
    -how alleles that favor self-sacrificing acts increase in frequency via kin selection
  16. Innate behavior
    • behavior that is not modified by learning
    • ex. a bird raised by humans makes the smae calls as those reaised in the wild
  17. how do birds that navigate by the sun adjust for position changes in the sun?
    -they use an inernal clock that tells them the time of day (circadian)
  18. Example of a fixed action pattern
    -newborn infants have a startle reflex in response to loud noise(Performed the same way each time)
  19. two types of Proximate questions
    • 1.Physiological: touch a hot, stimuli to remove hand
    • 2.Developmental Genentic: how development can be studied. Ex dog eats when bell rings
  20. two types of Ultimate questions
    • 1.Adaptive value question: how does this behavior increase fitness Ex. Giraffe neck
    • 2.Historical question: what was the history of the development of this behavior, why did they develop this behavior Ex.vestigial traits
  21. Learning behavior
    • Needs developing
    • -put mouse in tub with water, will take mouse a while to find a safe spot, but if you put the same mouse in the same tub, it will get there much quicker
  22. Imprinting
    • 1.critical period:(when animals are first born)
    • ex.ducklings born around humans they will think they are humans
    • -pernament versus learning
  23. Innovation
    • 1.when animals need something immediately, they manipulate objects to get what they want
    • Ex. bird wants food from tunnel, uses wire to get it out, so they bend it
  24. Condition-dependent behavior
    • environments change so need to have adaptive behavior, learning is quite important
    • ex.Male salmon(hooknose) who have to go in the ocean and risk their lives so they can mature and then reproduce upstream jack(sneakers) however just come back and reproduce with the slamon eggs
  25. Anthropomorphism
    • ascribing human characteristics to animals or inaminate objects.
    • ex. a dog smiling doesn't necessarily mean that he is happy
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Chapter 51:Behavioral Ecology