Chapter 34:Deuterostomes

  1. Deuterostome
    anus first
  2. Enchinoderm
    • -Enchindomata1."spiny-skins"
    • 2.Pentaradial symmetric
    • 3.Water vascular system
    • 4.exclusively marine
    • 5.Endoskeleton
    • 6.Tube feet:part of the vascualr system, are elongated fluid-filled appendages
    • -podia:"feet" sections of the tube feet that project outside the body and make contact with substrate
  3. echinoderm larvae are ______symmetric
  4. How do echinoderms feed?
    • -suspension feeding, deposit feeding, or harvesting algae
    • -podia play a key role in feeding
  5. Synapmorphies
    • 1.radial symmetry in adults,
    • 2. an endoskeleton of calcium carbonate
    • 3.water vascualr system
  6. Key Lineages of Echinoderms
    • 1.feather stars and sea lilies(Most primitive group)
    • 2.sea stars
    • 3.brittle stars and basket stars
    • 4. sea urchins and sand dollars
    • 5. sea cucumbers
  7. What is a Chordate?
    • 1.openings into the throat called pharyngeal gill slits
    • 2.a dorsal hollow nerve cord that runs the length of the body;coordinate muscle movement
    • 3.notochord;stiffens the muscualr tail
    • 4.muscular post anal tail
    • -together creating a "torpedo", fast swimming animal
  8. Sub Phyla of Chordates
    • 1.Cephalochordates
    • 2.Urochordates
    • 3.Vertebrates
  9. Cephalochordates
    -AKA lancelets
  10. Urochordates
    • -Chordata-AKA Tunicates
    • -start to lose their notochord and dorsal hollow nerve cord as adults
    • -salps:live in open water
    • -pharyngeal gill slits to suspension feed
  11. Vertebrate body plan
    • -spinal chord instead of dorsal hollow nerve cord
    • -pharyngeal pouches instead of pharyngeal gill slits
    • -notochord helps organize the body plan
  12. What is a vertebrate?
    • distinguished by two synapmorphies:
    • 1.vertebrae:column of cartilaginous or bony structures
    • 2.a cranium:a bony case that encloses the brain
  13. Brain regions
    • 1.forebrain:housing the sense of smell
    • 2.midbrain:associated with vision
    • 3.Hindbrain:responsible for balance and, in some species hearing
  14. Cartilage
    Strong, flexible tissue found in ear and nose
  15. Evolution of Vertebrate
    • when bone first evolved it was deposited in scale like plates that formed an exoskeleton
    • 1.Jaws
    • 2.Bony endoskeleton
    • 3.Limbs capable of moving on land
    • 4. amniotic egg
  16. Tunicates are the closest living relatives to _______
  17. Grade
    fishy organism form a grade;a sequence of lineages that are paraphyletic
  18. What are the most species-rich and ecologically diverse lineages among vertebrates?
    Ray finned fishes and tetrapods
  19. The radiation of ray-finned fishes was triggered by the _______
    Evolution of the jaw
  20. What triggered tetrapod diversification?
    involved the ability to move and get food, not to bite it and process it
  21. Mammals
    • Chordata:Vertebrae:Mammalia
    • -All mammals have mammary glands
  22. Species that produce amniotic eggs lay them where?
    outside of water
  23. Mammalian Lineages
    • 1.Monotremes:Lay eggs
    • 2.marsupials: well developed pouch
    • 3.Placental or eutherians: well developed placenta and extended pregnancy
  24. Mammalia:Montremata
    • -have leathery beak
    • Ex.Platypuses and Echidnas
  25. Mammalia:Marsupials
    • Ex.Kangaroos, Koala
    • -short embryonic period
  26. Mammalia:Eutheria
    • -most species rich and morphologically diverse group of mammals
    • Ex.rodents, moles,pigs, deer, dogs, bears, cats, primates, humans
  27. Reptiles
    • Chordata:Vertebrae:Reptilla
    • adaptations to land:
    • 1.scales
    • 2.well developed lungs
    • 3.Amniotic eggs
    • -snakes=tetrapods, lost legs later on
  28. Reptilla Lingeages
    • 1.lizards and snakes(Lepidosauria)
    • 2.turtles
    • 3.crocidiles and alligators
    • 4.birds (Aves)
  29. Caecillians
    Legless amphibians
  30. what is the echinoderm endoskeleton made of?
    Calcium carbonate
  31. what are the diagnostic traits of vertebrates?
    -Vertebrae and cranium
  32. why are pharyngeal jaws found in many ray-finned fishes important?
    -They help process food
  33. What lineages make up the living Amniota?
    -Reptiles and mammals
  34. What is the relationship between the dorsal hollow nerve cord and the spinal cord?
    -The spinal cord is a type of dorsal hollow nerve cord
  35. The bone in early vertebrates formed an______
    exoskeleton that served as protection for the organism
  36. what allows females to produce a small number of large, well-developed offspring?
    viviparity and the evolution of the placenta
  37. deuterostomes that is most likely to be found in nature?
    -Ectotherm that has a swim bladder and protrusible jaws, and carries out external fertilizzation
  38. What pair of features is possessed by all vertebrates at some point in thier life?
    Tail and cranium
  39. all deuterostomes are
    • 1.have coelom
    • 2.triploblastic
    • 3.similar pattern of early embryonic development
  40. Three classes of fish(Chordates)
    • 1.Agnatha
    • 2.Chrondrichthyes
    • 3.osteichthyes
  41. Example of Agnatha
    -jawless fish Hagfish and Lampreys
  42. Example of chondrichthyes
    • -cartilaginous fish
    • -most diverse group of vertebrates
    • -Mudskipper: fish that likes being on land
    • -Nurse shark, chimaera, rays
  43. osteichthyes
    • -Bony fish-most diverse group of vertebrae
    • Ex. mudskipper
  44. Amphibians
    • 1.first group with limbs(tetrapods)
    • 2.Require water for reproduction;do not have amniotic sac
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Chapter 34:Deuterostomes