2011-12-12 04:11:36
chapt 13

Show Answers:


  1. moral development
    involves changes in thoughts, feelingd, and behaviors regardign standards fo right and wrong
  2. intrapersonal dimension
    regulates a persons activites when she or he is not engaged in social interactions
  3. intrerpersonal dimension
    regualtes scoial intereactions arbirates conflict
  4. pigets theory of moral thought
    • heternomous morality-4 to 7 years
    • transition stage 7 to 10 years
    • autonomous morality 10 years and older
  5. heteronomous morality (4 to 7)
    children think of justice and rules as unchangeable properties of the world, removed from the control of people
  6. autonomous morality (10 years and up)
    they become aware that rules and laws are created by people, and judging an action, they consider the actors intentions as well as the consequences
  7. immanent justice
    concept that if a rule is broken, punishment will be meted out immediatly(heteronomous thinker)
  8. kohlbergs theory
    • moral reasoning unfolds in universal stages
    • tested by story with moral delema
    • has 3 levels and 6 stages
  9. stage2- individualism, puropose and exchange
    individuals pusue their own interests but let others do the same. what is right involves equal exchange/if they are nice to others then others will be nice to them
  10. level 1 perconventional level(before age 9)
    • stage1- heteronomous morality-moral thinking is tied to punishment
    • stage2- individualism, puropose and exchange
  11. level 2 conventional level (early adolscence)
    • stage3- mutual interpersonal expectations, relationships, and interpersnoal conformity
    • stage4- social systems morality
  12. stage3)mutual interpersonal expectations, relationships, and interpersnoal conformity
    individuals value trust, caring, and loyalty to others as a basis for moral judgment/ this is when children adop their parents moral standards
  13. stag4) social system morality
    moral judgment ate based on understanding of the social order, law, justice, and duty (the community needs law and order in order for it to work effectivly)
  14. level3- postconventional level(adults)
    • stage5- social contract or utility and individual rights
    • stage6- universal ethical principles
  15. stage5) social contract or utility and individual rights
    individuals reason that values, rights, and principles undergird or transcend the law/ a person evaluates the validity of actual laws, and social systems in terms of the degree to which they preserve and protect fundamental human rights and values
  16. stahge6) universal ethical principles
    individuals have developed moral judgment that are based on universal human rights. when faced with a dilemma between law and conscience, they follow a personal, individualized conscience, even though the desion might brign risk
  17. level 1) preconventional reasoning
    good and bad are interpreted in terms of external rewards and punishments
  18. level2) conventional reasoning
    individuals apply certain standards, but they are the standards set by others, such as parents or the government
  19. level3) postconventional reasoning
    individual recognizes alternative moral courses, explores the options, and then decides on a personal moral code
  20. kohlbergs jutice perspective
    focuses on the rights of the individual indpendently make moral decisions/ gender bias
  21. gilligan care perspective
    views people in terms of their connectedness with others and emphasizes interpersonal communication, relationships whith others and concern for others
  22. social conventional reasoning
    fcouses on conventional rules that have been established by social consenus in order to control behavior and maintain the social system(raising your hand in class)
  23. moral reasoning
    focus on ethical issuses and rules of morality, obliatory, widley accepted, and some what impersonal (rules pertaining to lying cheating stealing etc)
  24. resistance to temptation and slef control
    offering children cognitive rationales enchances most forms of punishment. cognitive rationals are more effective in getting children to resist temptation over a period of time thatn punishment that do not uses reasoning.
  25. moral pefrmance
    behavior determined by motivation and the rewards and incentives to act in a specific moral standard
  26. moral competencies
    what individuals are capable of doing, what they know, their skills , their awareness of moral rules and regulations and the cognitive ablility to construct behaviors
  27. social cognitive theroy of morality
    distinction between an indviduals moral competenece( the ability to perform moral behaviors) and moral performance( pefroming those behaviors in specifc situations)/ enviroment, cognition, and behavior
  28. freuds psychoanalytic theory
    • guilt and the dsire to avoid feeling guilty are the foundation of moral behavior
    • superego
    • ego ideal
    • conscience
  29. superego
    • is the moral branch of persnality consisting of two main counterparts
    • ego ideal
    • conscience
  30. ego ideal
    part of superego that rewards the child by conveying a sense of pride and personal value when the child acts according to ideal standads approved by the parents
  31. conscience
    componet of superego that rewards the child for behaviors disapproved of by parents by making the child feel guilty and worthless
  32. empathy
    reacting to anothers feeling with an emotional response that is similar to the others feeling (put onself in anothers place emotionally)
  33. cognitive component
    perspective taking (the ability to discern anothers inner psychological state)
  34. damon therory
    emphazies on empathy
  35. global empathy
    young infants empathic respnse in which clear boundaries between the feelings and need of the self and those of antoher have not yet been established (fought off tears , sucked her thumb, and buried her head in her mothrs lap after she seen another child fall hurt himself)
  36. Contemporary perspective
    •When strongly felt, both positive and negative feelings contribute to moral behavior
  37. Positive feelings
    empathy, sympathy, admiration, self-esteem
  38. Negative feelings
    anger, outrage, shame, guilt
  39. Moral personality
    • thoughts,
    • behavior,
    • feelings
    • personality
  40. Moral identity
    willpower, integrity, moral desire(aspect of personality that is presnt when indviduals ahve moral notions and commitment that are cetral to their lives
  41. Moral character
    convictions, persistence, focus
  42. Moral exemplars
    being honest and dependable; having set of virtues reflecting moral excellence
  43. Parenting recommendations
    • •Warm and supportive, not punitive
    • •Use inductive discipline
    • •Provide opportunities for children
    • •Involve children in decisions
    • •Model moral behaviors
    • •Provide info and foster internal morality
  44. Hidden Curriculum
    th pervasive moral atmospher that characterize every school
  45. Character Education
    Direct moral education approach teaches students basic moral literacy to prevent immoral behavior, doing harm to themselves or others
  46. Values Clarification
    • Helps clarify what life is for, what to work for
    • –Students encouraged to define own values and understand others’ values
  47. Cognitive Moral Education
    • Students should value things like democracy and justice as moral reasoning develops
    • –Instructor is facilitator, not director
  48. Service Learning
    • Form of education that promotes social responsibility and service to community
    • –Benefits student volunteers and recipients
  49. Integrative approach
    • •Use reflective moral thinking and commitment to justice
    • •Discuss students’ experiences
    • •Adult coach students in ethical decision making
    • •Students need to experience a caring community
  50. Integrative ethical education
    • •Program builds on concepts of expertise
    • •Goal: turn moral novices into moral experts
  51. Prosocial behavior
    regard and concern for others
  52. Altruism
    unselfish interest in helping another person, mostly evoked by empathy
  53. reciprocity
    the obligation to return a favor with a favor
  54. Conduct disorder
    • •Age-inappropriate behaviors, attitudes violating norms, rights of others
    • •Behaviors encompass a wide range
    • •Serious conduct problems